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Compressors: How to Achieve High Reliability & Availability

Book Description

Practical techniques for optimizing compressor performance

Written by experts with more than 100 combined years of industry experience in machinery failure avoidance, Compressors: How to Achieve High Reliability & Availability offers proven solutions to a pervasive and expensive problem in modern industry--compressor failure. This succinct, on-the-job guide addresses elusive causes of compressor failure and clearly maps out permanent remedies you can put to use right away. With a focus on centrifugal and reciprocating compressors, this accessible reference is based on real-world processes and procedures used by successful global companies.

Coverage includes:

  • Compression principles and internal labyrinths
  • Selection factors for process compressors
  • Operation characteristics of turbocompressors
  • Wet and dry gas seals
  • Bearings, stability, and vibration guidance
  • Lube and seal oil systems
  • Impellers and rotors
  • Compressor maintenance and surveillance
  • Inspection and repair of rotors
  • Machinery quality assessment (MQA)
  • Failure analysis and troubleshooting
  • Reciprocating compressor operation, control, maintenance, and rebuilding
  • Maintenance and operations interfaces
  • Reciprocating compressor monitoring and surveillance
  • Training competent compressor engineers

Table of Contents

  1. Cover 
  2. About the Authors
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. Contents 
  6. Preface
  7. 1: Introduction, Compression Principles, and Internal Labyrinths
    1. Density and Compression Ratios
    2. Heat and Mass Concepts Simplified
    3. The Concept of “Head” and Other Parameters
    4. Positive Displacement versus Dynamic Compressors
    5. Internal Labyrinth Seals
    6. Preinvesting with Future Uprating in Mind
    7. What We Have Learned
    8. References
  8. 2: Selection Factors for Process Compressors
    1. What We Have Learned
    2. References
  9. 3: Operating Characteristics of Turbocompressors
    1. Surge
    2. Compressor Speed
    3. Inlet Pressure and Temperature
    4. Effect of Gas Properties
    5. Effect of Speed Changes
    6. Changing Suction Temperature
    7. What We Have Learned
    8. Reference
  10. 4: Wet and Dry Gas Seals for Centrifugal Compressors
    1. The Case against Wet Seals
    2. How Gas Seals Function
    3. Minimizing the Risk of Sealing Problems
    4. Seal Safety and Reliability
    5. Making Good Choices
    6. What We Have Learned
    7. References
  11. 5: Bearings, Stability, and Vibration Guidance
    1. Mechanical Design
    2. Destabilizing Forces and Aerodynamic Cross Coupling
    3. Fractional Frequency Activity in Bearings
    4. Examining What Can Be Done about Instability
    5. Thrust and Radial Tilt Pad Bearings
    6. Bearing Clearances
    7. Vibration and Acceptable Limits
    8. What We Have Learned
    9. References
  12. 6: Lube and Seal Oil Systems
    1. Layout Guidance
    2. Examine What Often Goes Wrong
      1. Main versus Standby Pump
      2. Slow-Roll Precautions
      3. System Reservoirs
      4. Heating Requirements
      5. Filters and Coolers
      6. Centrifugal Compressor Lube/Seal Reservoir Explosion Hazards
    3. What We Have Learned
    4. References
  13. 7: Impellers and Rotors
    1. Construction, Inspection, and Repair of Impellers
      1. Two-Dimensional versus Three-Dimensional Impeller Blading
      2. Careful Design Needed to Avoid Failures
    2. What We Have Learned
    3. Reference
  14. 8: Compressor Maintenance and Surveillance Highlights
    1. Preventive and Predictive Maintenance Explained
    2. Compressor Maintenance in Best Practices Plants
    3. Emergency Repairs Should Be Minimized
    4. Effectiveness of Selective Preventive Maintenance
    5. Know Your Existing Program
    6. Maintenance Improvement
    7. What We Have Learned
    8. References
  15. 9: Inspection and Repair Guidelines for Rotors
    1. Phase I (Initial Preparation)
      1. Preliminary Work Lists and Tabulations of Deliverables for Work Performed during Planned Shutdowns
      2. Inspection
      3. Cleaning
      4. Deficiency Mapping
    2. Phase II (Repairs)
    3. Phase III (Assembly and Balancing)
    4. Phase IV (Preparation for Storage or Shipment)
    5. What We Have Learned
    6. Reference
  16. 10: Machinery Quality Assessment
    1. Detailed Specifications Are Needed
    2. Briefing Project Executives on MQA
    3. Only Competent Manufacturers Are Invited to Submit Bids
      1. Contractor Piping and Instrumentation
    4. What We Have Learned
    5. References
  17. 11 Compressor Failure Analysis Overview
    1. Case History Dealing with Impeller Failure
      1. Failure Analysis Step No. 1: The “Seven Root Cause Category” Approach
      2. Failure Analysis Step No. 2: “FRETT”
      3. Step No. 3: Validation, or Relating Analytical Models to Field Experience
    2. What We Have Learned
    3. References
    4. Bibliography
  18. 12 Reciprocating Compressors: Background and Overview
    1. Introduction
    2. Basic Operating Principle Explained
    3. Downstream Process Reciprocating Compressors: Major Components
      1. Lubrication
      2. Cylinders
      3. Valves
      4. Pistons
      5. Piston Rod
      6. Packing
    4. What We Have Learned
    5. References
  19. 13 Compressor Operation and Capacity Control
    1. Starting Reciprocating Compressors
    2. Performance Control and Throughput Adjustment
    3. Multiple Services
    4. Calculations
      1. Piston Displacement
      2. Compression Ratio
      3. Clearance
      4. Volumetric Efficiency
    5. Basic Equations
    6. What We Have Learned
    7. References
  20. 14 Reciprocating Compressor Maintenance
    1. Compressor Cylinder
      1. Rod Load
      2. Piston and Liner Care
      3. Packing Care
      4. Valve Care
      5. Valve Repair Practices
    2. Noise and Vibration
    3. Frame (Crankcase) Repair Practices
      1. Foundations
      2. Crankshaft Deflections
    4. What We Have Learned
    5. References
  21. 15 Maintenance and Operations Interfaces
    1. Shutdowns
    2. Monitoring and Record Keeping
    3. Cleanliness and Tools
    4. Major Overhaul Checklist for Reciprocating Compressors
    5. What We Have Learned
    6. Bibliography
  22. 16 Surveillance, Monitoring, and Troubleshooting Reciprocating Compressors
    1. Surveillance
      1. General
      2. Valves
      3. Packing Vents
      4. Vibration and Noise
      5. Lubrication
      6. Cylinder Cooling
    2. Monitoring
      1. Temperature Measurement
      2. Efficiency Calculations
      3. Troubleshooting
    3. Quick Troubleshooting Guide
      1. Compressor Will Not Start
      2. Low Oil Pressure
      3. Frame Knocks
      4. Noise in Cylinder
      5. Excessive Packing Leakage
      6. Packing Overheats
      7. High Discharge Temperature
      8. Low Suction Pressure
    4. References
  23. 17 Reciprocating Compressor Upgrading, Rebuilding, and Remanufacturing
    1. Inspection, Overhaul, and Repair
    2. Rebuilding
      1. Upgrading, Conversion, Rerate, Revamp, or Reapplication Decisions Resulting in Rebuilding, Refurbishment, and Remanufacturing of Existing Reciprocating Compressors
      2. Contact with Service Shops
      3. OEM versus Non-OEM Compressor Rebuilding, Refurbishment, Upgrading, Conversion, Rerating, Revamping, Reapplication, and Remanufacture
    3. What We Have Learned
    4. Reference
  24. 18 Training Competent Compressor Engineers
    1. Role Statement and “Phase One” of In-House Training
    2. The Structure of Training
    3. “Phase Two” Training: Digging Up the Facts
    4. Training Plans Beyond Phases I and II
    5. Putting the Training to Practice
    6. What We Have Learned
    7. References
  25. Index