O'Reilly logo

CompTIA® Linux+ Certification, Powered by LPI, Student Manual by Axzo Press

Stay ahead with the world's most comprehensive technology and business learning platform.

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required

32 CompTIA Linux+ Certification, Powered by LPI
Topic A: Directory organization
This topic covers the following CompTIA exam objectives for Linux+ [Powered by
LPI] Certification, LX0-101 and LX0-102 exams.
# Objective
103.1 Work on the command line
Use single shell commands and one line command sequences to perform basic tasks on the
command line
Invoke commands inside and outside the defined path
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms, and utilities:
. (period)
pwd
103.3 Perform basic file management
Copy, move and remove files and directories individually
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms, and utilities:
mkdir
mv
ls
rmdir
104.7 Find system files and place files in the correct location
Understand the correct locations of files under the FHS
Know the location and purpose of important files and directories as defined in the FHS
Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS)
Explanation Most operating systems use a desktop, or office metaphor. In the real, physical world,
you have papers, plus folders and file cabinets to store them in. In the computer world,
files represent the papers you work with; they are your actual data. You organize files in
folders, also called directories. You store your files and folders in volumes, which are
the like the drawers in your file cabinet. A collection of volumes on one or more disk
drives are analogous to a collection of drawers within file cabinets.
The creators of Linux and UNIX organized the operating system and application files
into a set of standard directories. This structure has evolved over time to become the
Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS), illustrated in Exhibit 2-1. This standard specifies
a common set of directories, with specific names and purposes. Not all Linux distros
follow the FHS exactly, but most are pretty close.
File and directory management 33
Exhibit 3-1: The FHS defines a common set of directories
34 CompTIA Linux+ Certification, Powered by LPI
The purpose of each of the FHS directories is described in the following table.
Directory Stores
/ All the other directories and files on the system. The root directory is the top of
the file system hierarchy.
/bin System commands (aka, binaries) available to all users, such as ls, cat, and so
forth. Binaries here are available to users logged on in single-user mode.
/boot Boot loader files.
/dev Device files.
/etc Computer-specific configuration files.
/home User files.
/lib Programming libraries (akin to DLLs in the Windows world) used by binaries
in /bin and /sbin.
/media Temporary mounting point for filesystems on removable media devices, such
as CD-ROMs and USB disks.
/mnt Temporary mounting point for filesystems, but not typically used with
removable media devices.
/opt Optional applications.
/proc Process and kernel status files.
/root The root user’s files; this directory is that user’s home directory.
/sbin System administration binaries (commands).
/tmp Temporary files that are normally not kept between system reboots.
/usr User-level files not associated with a particular user account.
/usr/bin Binaries available to all users. Binaries here are not necessarily available to
users logged on in single-user mode.
/usr/local Local programs, those specific to the computer.
/usr/lib Libraries for the binaries in /usr/bin and /usr/sbin.
/usr/lib64 Libraries for the 64-bit binaries in /usr/bin and /usr/sbin.
/usr/share Shared data files that are architecture-independent.
/usr/src Source code files for the kernel.
/usr/X11R6 X Windows related files.
/var Spool, log, and other temporary files, including user mail files.

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, interactive tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required