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CompTIA® Linux+ Certification, Powered by LPI, Student Manual by Axzo Press

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514 CompTIA Linux+ Certification, Powered by LPI
Topic B: GUI configuration
This topic covers the following CompTIA exam objectives for Linux+ [Powered by
LPI] Certification, LX0-101 and LX0-102 exams.
# Objective
106.1 Install and configure X11
Awareness of the X font server
Basic understanding and knowledge of the X Window configuration file
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms, and utilities:
/etc/X11/xorg.conf
xhost
X
106.2 Set up a display manager
Turn the display manager on or off
Change the display manager greeting
Change default color depth for the display manager
Configure display managers for use by X-stations
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms, and utilities:
xdm configuration files
kdm configuration files
gdm configuration files
Video configuration
Explanation Modern windowing environments, such as GNOME and KDE, offer simple tools for
adjusting the video output of your Linux system. Historically, this was not the case. It
was necessary to edit various configuration files with specific video hardware
information.
With distros, such as Debian, Ubuntu, and Fedora, the installation routines detect your
video hardware configuration. The installer also automatically configures the various
window environment settings and starts the GUI by default.
Manual configuration
If you’re running an older distribution, or an advanced hacker-oriented distro, you might
still have to edit such files yourself. The files you must edit depend on your X Windows
version, as listed here:
X Windows version 11 (X11) — /etc/X11/xorg.conf
XFree86 — /etc/X11/XF86Config
User environment configuration 515
You need the following video system information:
Maximum resolution supported
Maximum color depth support (e.g. 24-bit color)
Horizontal sync range (hsync)
Vertical sync range (vsync)
Chipset manufacturer and version
Make sure to read the appropriate man pages—xorg.conf or XF86Config—to determine
all the details you need and the edits you must make before attempting any changes.
Entering incorrect information can result in corrupted output, a GUI environment that
won’t load, or even damaged hardware.
X terminology
A nuanced terminology has grown up around the X Windows system. You will
encounter the following terms in guides, configuration files, and configuration utilities.
Device—the graphics adapter.
Monitor—the CRT or LCD display device.
Screen—the virtual area onto which graphics and information is rendered. You
might be tempted to equate monitor and screen. But, one is physical and the
other virtual. You can put one physical monitor to the left of another and the
virtual screens in opposite order. Moving the mouse left or right will follow the
virtual locations of the screens not of the physical devices.
Display—the collection of screens assigned to one user. In a multiuser
configuration, each user has his or her own display comprising one or more
screens on one or more monitors.
Screen resolution
In GNOME, you can adjust the screen resolution, refresh rate, and other settings by
using the Screen Resolution Preferences dialog box on the System, Preferences menu.
Exhibit 5-1 illustrates this dialog box. You may run this utility as a normal (non-root)
user, and the changes you make affect your logon only.
Exhibit 5-1: The Screen Resolution Preferences dialog box

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