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CompTIA® Linux+ Certification, Powered by LPI, Student Manual by Axzo Press

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62 CompTIA Linux+ Certification, Powered by LPI
Topic A: Package management
This topic covers the following CompTIA exam objectives for Linux+ [Powered by
LPI] Certification, LX0-101 and LX0-102 exams.
# Objective
102.4 Use Debian package management
Install, upgrade and uninstall Debian binary packages
Find packages containing specific files or libraries which may or may not be installed
Obtain package information like version, content, dependencies, package integrity and
installation status (whether or not the package is installed)
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms, and utilities:
/etc/apt/sources.list
dpkg
dpkg-reconfigure
apt-get
apt-cache
aptitude
102.5 Use RPM and YUM package management
Install, re-install, upgrade and remove packages using RPM and YUM
Obtain information on RPM packages such as version, status, dependencies, integrity and
signatures
Determine what files a package provides, as well as find which package a specific file comes
from
The following is a partial list of the used files, terms, and utilities:
rpm
rpm2cpio
/etc/yum.conf
/etc/yum.repos.d/
yum
yumdownloader
Software distribution
Explanation Application software and Linux components are distributed in several formats, which
include:
Binaries
Source code
Packages
Application management 63
Binaries
Software delivered as binaries are precompiled applications specific to a particular
hardware and operating system platform. Commercial software is sometimes delivered
as binaries, perhaps with a custom installation script. Such software is easy for end-
users to install and use.
Binaries are specific to Linux distribution, version, and hardware architecture. Even
though this format can be convenient for end-users, it is less so for publishers. Software
publishers must release many versions of binaries to address the various combinations
of distribution and hardware platform, maintain current versions of those binaries, and
manage the potential confusion when users purchase the wrong binaries.
Source code
Software delivered as source code is uncompiled program code, ready to be compiled
for your particular hardware and operating system platform. Compiling converts source
code into binary, specific to the operating system and hardware on which it was
compiled. You need a compiler, such as the Gnu C Compiler (gcc) in order to compile
source code into an installable application.
Individual programmers often distribute their software in this manner. The same source
code can be compiled on many different systems. So, distributing in source code
enables these individuals to use the code easily on a wide variety of systems.
However, source distribution is difficult for end users. They must have a compiler
installed, know how to configure it and use, and be able to handle any problems or
issues that arise during compilation. Advanced users and programmers are the most
likely users of software distributed as source code.
Packages
Packages are precompiled applications delivered in a specialized bundle that can be
read and installed by a package manager. A package contains binary code, along with
meta-information that describes the application, provides the internal information
needed to install and configure the application, and describes dependencies—
components or other applications that are required for an application to function.
Popular package formats include:
deb—The Debian package format, developed originally for the Debian
distribution.
RPM—The RedHat Package Manager format, originally developed for RedHat
Linux.
Packages often include a checksum, which is a value calculated through a mathematical
operation performed on the package file. The package manager calculates its own
checksum and compares it to the checksum stored in the package; if the values match,
the package file has not been altered (for example, by a transmission error or a virus)
since being created.
Packages are often published via repositories, which are online libraries of software
packages. Package managers automatically download packages from repositories and
install the software onto your system.

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