The audit of information systems has been necessary since the early days of computing. Configuration management of mainframe controls is an area where information systems audits first gained visibility as a practice needing great structure and refinement. As far back as 1969, a group of professionals formed the Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA) to create a centralized source of information and guidance in the field. The ISACA Web site is available at http://www.isaca.org.
No one should ever conduct a port scan, vulnerability test, or pen test without written authorization.
For the computer forensics investigator, ...