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Computer Evidence: Collection and Preservation, Second Edition by Christopher L. T. Brown

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TCP/IP Addressing

Addressing in TCP/IP Version 4, which falls in the OSI network layer, uses what is known as a 32-bit IP address. The phrase 32-bit means that 4 bytes hold the data. The addresses usually appear to users in dotted-decimal form, such as 123.64.12.88. Each decimal number ranges from 0 to 255. In most configurations, investigators also find what is known as a subnet mask, which may look something similar to 255.255.255.0. Although the mechanics of creating and using subnet masks involve complex math such as binary-to-decimal conversions and bit shifting, a subnet mask is simply a way of identifying which network the IP address is located on and whether the computer or network device needs to send the outgoing packet of data to ...

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