An image derivative is defined as the change in the pixel value of an image. The rate of change of a function is defined as:

Using this definition in the context of images, calculate the change in the pixel values of an image and, since pixels are discrete image derivatives, they are defined as *f(x+1) – f(x)/1*. To calculate the derivative at any point, we can use finite difference methods to calculate the derivatives such as forward difference, backward difference, and central difference. Finite difference methods are defined as follows:

**Forward difference**:

*f (x + 1) - f (x)*

**Backward difference**:

*f(x) – f(x-1)*

**Central ...**