Protection of masonry

Walls are best designed and detailed to cast off water, to deal with splash-back and the capillary flow of water from the ground, to cope with freeze–thaw and to otherwise protect against structural damage. Masonry damage can be the consequence of chemical attack or physical disruption owing to salts crystallizing and the results of freeze–thaw action. Both these types of attack can themselves be affected by biological activity—and they are often the consequence of water ingress caused by failure of a water barrier, such as a moisture-proof course or a capping or flashing. Acid rain can exacerbate such attack.

Biological attacks tend to be bacteriological, and therefore a consequence of dampness. Bird droppings and leaves ...

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