Deformation

This is caused by applied loads, changes in moisture content, or changes in temperature—any of which may cause expansion and contraction. Such change, therefore, should be designed for—for example, tubular steel handrails should have sleeve joints (aka “sprig joints”) so they can expand and contract; while stone, brick, and concrete should be designed to avoid freeze–thaw and shrinkable clay damage, and to cope with variations in weather or climate (for example, snow can add a variable or “live load” to a structure).

image

A A clay plant pot cracked due to root growth stress.

B Icelandic style drystone wall with sod serving as a coping, ...

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