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Construction for Landscape Architecture by Jamie Liversedge, Robert Holden

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Mechanical connections

Nails and tacks: Lumber-construction dating is facilitated by the knowledge that before 1800 the common nail was handmade. Cut nails were used in the nineteenth century; and since 1900 wire nails have been the usual form. Nonetheless, handmade, wrought-iron nails can still be produced by a blacksmith; and cut nails are still made for conservation work. Today, mild steel is the most common material but nails are also available in copper, bronze, and stainless steel as well as wrought iron.

Screws: These were used in ancient times, mainly in jewelry making and other fine processes. Slot-headed screws are said to date back to the sixteenth century, and were used in clock making. By the end of the eighteenth century, blunt-end ...

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