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Construction for Landscape Architecture by Jamie Liversedge, Robert Holden

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Cast iron

Cast iron is formed by reheating the pig iron in order to reduce the manganese and silicon, to increase the sulphur and to combine the graphite carbon into ferric carbide. The resultant cast iron is of two main types: gray and white. Gray cast iron has a high silicon level; it is soft and readily turned or filed. White cast iron has a maximum silicon content of 1.3 per cent and no graphite.

Cast iron is brittle unless toughened to make ductile iron (also known as spheroidal, or nodular, iron). This is done by heating gray iron with graphite nodules and removing the sulphur, which allows the grains of iron to touch and so strengthens the metal. Malleable cast iron is similar to ductile iron but is made by annealing white cast iron; it ...

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