O'Reilly logo

Construction for Landscape Architecture by Jamie Liversedge, Robert Holden

Stay ahead with the world's most comprehensive technology and business learning platform.

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required

Modern manufacture

Typically, glass is made from two-thirds raw materials (15 parts sand:5 parts soda:4 parts lime) mixed with one-third of recycled glass (or cullet): this is batched or mixed in proportion and then heated at 2,732°F in a gas-fired furnace. The consequent molten glass is homogenized and refined by removing bubbles.

Most window, or flat, glass is produced using the float process devised by Sir Alastair Pilkington and Kenneth Bickerstaff in the 1950s, whereby a continuous ribbon of molten glass is floated over a bath of melted tin and then subjected to nitrogen under pressure to make a polished top surface. The glass is then laminated or silvered (to make mirrors), or otherwise treated. Reheating and rapid cooling forms toughened ...

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, interactive tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required