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Construction for Landscape Architecture by Jamie Liversedge, Robert Holden

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Foundations and structure

There are two main types of wall foundation: the pile foundation and the post-and-beam construction. Pile foundations are the cheapest and easiest type to build. They consist of a simple slab of concrete, usually buried underground below the frost line, and are commonly a minimum of 18 in deep in temperate areas but greater than 72 in deep in climates with severe winters. The minimum recommended depth on shrinkable clay soils is 30 in to 5 ft depending on the soil’s plasticity index.5

Freeze–thaw can cause a concrete foundation to move if it is not adequately protected from ground frost by being buried sufficiently deeply. Usually, the concrete strip is reinforced with steel mesh. Conventionally, a pile foundation is ...

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