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Construction for Landscape Architecture by Jamie Liversedge, Robert Holden

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Foundations

Paving should be designed from the foundation up, and then for the traffic and loads to be applied downwards—and for the drainage of surfacewater. A fundamental criterion is the CBR, or California Bearing Ratio, of the ground (see page 104). Usually, an additional capping layer of 14–24 in may be appropriate.

Most soils move over time: for example, shrinkable clays dry and shrink; peat soils, when drained, may fall in level over time by a yard or more. In recently reclaimed Dutch polders, the removal of the weight of the water resulted in the land rising. Furthermore, tree roots can, of course, lift paving and even walls. Such movement is particularly found in gardens in which natural plant growth is encouraged; design for such movement, ...

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