Sashidharan Komandur & Sathiya Kumar Renganayagalu
Aalesund University College, Norway
Training is vital for the safety of any complex offshore operation.
Advanced simulators are now a standard fixture to train operators.
Familiarization of the procedures is an important first step prior to
hands-on training in the simulators. We explore the utility of includ-
ing videos of experts in the instruction material for familiarization.
We also explore the utility of videos layered with eye tracking data
(of experts) for familiarization as it may increase specificity in the
instruction methods.
In the maritime domain proper training is vital as most operations are highly
demanding and safety critical. This underlines the importance of training, which is
why offshore industry uses advanced training tools like modern simulators. Famil-
iarization of procedures is an important first step and many introductory courses
are geared towards this. A study in the medical domain showed that experts and
novices have very different view patterns that directlyaffectindividual performance
(Law, 2004). So we believe, recording experts’ visual attentions and showing it to
novices will enhance the training experience and accelerate their familiarization
process. The first aim of this study is to assess the utility of including videos of
experts in the instruction material during the familiarization of operational proce-
dures. The second aim of this study is to assess the utility to the familiarization
process by including eye tracking data in the video.
Subjects will be recruited from the pool of students who attend certificate introduc-
tory courses in anchor-handling operation for working at the Aalesund university
college (familiarization of anchor-handling procedures). These participants can be
classified as novices. Data from subjects will be collected onlyafter receiving ethics
approval from REK (Norway) and NSD (Norway). Materials required for this study
primarily consists of a simulator for anchor handling operations at the Aalesund
University College. The simulator in addition to realistic visualizations has a phys-
ical layout that is proportional to real ship bridge layouts in offshore supply vessels.
In this experiment we have chosen the familiarization part of training where the
152 S. Komandur & S.K. Renganayagalu
trainer gives a brief about the simulator and its equipment in the simulator space
itself. Video data of experts presented as a part of instruction material is captured
using two video cameras. One camera (video 1) captures the entire ship bridge lay-
out when the expert carries out an example of the operational procedure.The second
camera (video 2) is inbuilt in the eye-tracker and provides the perspective of the
expert (trainer) during the operational procedure. The tools used to capture expert’s
data are a standard off the shelf video camera and an eye tracker (ASL Mobile
eyeglasses 2012).
Methods for the study is as follows: The current instruction process by the trainer
during familiarization consists of oral instructions and walk through in the simula-
tor. This is followed by hands-on trials by the students in the simulator. In this study
subjects undertake 5 hands-on trials and based on the perceived outcome of these
trials effectiveness of instruction method is determined. The subjects in this study
will be divided into three groups and they will go through the instruction process
with the following additional material as shown below:
1) Group 1 (Control condition): standard instruction
2) Group 2 (Case 1): standard instruction + video 1
3) Group 3 (Case 2): standard instruction + video 1 + video 2
After the instruction process subjects in all the groups will undertake 5 hands-on
trials in the simulator and based on the perceived outcome of these trials effective-
ness of instruction method is determined. The perceived learning outcome will be
determined by a self-report adapted from the study Saus et al. 2010. The instructors
will also judge the outcome subjectively. In addition the subjects will also wear
an eye tracker (Tobii eyeglasses 2010) during the hands-on training, as we would
like to explore if any of the eye tracking metrics (e.g. fixation count or duration on
chosen areas of interest) can become measures of learning outcome. Appropriate
statistical methods will be employed to test for significant differences in the per-
ceived learning outcomes between the groups. This is a work in progress and our
preliminary studies indicate that there are substantial gains in the perceived
learning outcome when videos with eye tracking data is provided as a part of
instruction material.
Benjamin Law, M. Stella Atkins, A.E. Kirkpatrick, Alan J. Lomax, Christine L.
Mackenzie, 2004, EyeGazePatterns DifferentiateNovice andExpertsinaVirtual
Laparoscopic Surgery Training Environment.
Evelyn-Rose Saus, Bjørn Helge Johnsen, Jarle Eid, 2010, Perceived learning out-
come: the relationship between experience, realism, and situation awareness
during simulator training, Int Marit Health 61, 4: 258–264.

Get Contemporary Ergonomics and Human Factors 2013 now with O’Reilly online learning.

O’Reilly members experience live online training, plus books, videos, and digital content from 200+ publishers.