Continual Improvement Process by Pearson

Book description

The Key result area of quality innovation in any process lies in its continual improvement. This book focuses on the continual-improvement process, providing contemporary tools and methods for achieving optimum quality and process improvement. Ample cases

Book Contents –

Section A: An Overview
Section B: Scanning Methodology to Clean-up and Sanitise a Process—First Step to Continual Improvement
Section C: Measurement of Process Defect Level and Process Cycle Efficiency
Section D: Continual Improvement Process Framework
Section E: Statistical Techniques for Investigation and Improvement
Section F: Continual Improvement—Managerial Aspects
Section G: Continual Improvement—Larger Vital Issues
Section H: Continual Improvement—Starting off and Practical Hints

Glossary, Bibliography, Author Index, Subject Index

Table of contents

  1. Cover (1/2)
  2. Cover (2/2)
  3. Contents (1/2)
  4. Contents (2/2)
  5. Preface
  6. Acknowledgements
  7. Section A: An Overview
    1. Chapter 1: Total Quality Management with Six Sigma
      1. Total quality management—meaning
      2. TQM—eight fundamental principles
        1. Customer focus
        2. Leadership
        3. Involvement of people
        4. Process approach
        5. Systems approach
        6. Continual improvement
        7. Factual approach to decision-making
        8. Mutually beneficial supplier relationships
      3. Variation
      4. Six Sigma
      5. TQM vs. Six Sigma
      6. World trend in quality
      7. Conclusion
    2. Chapter 2: Continual Improvement and Competitive Edge
      1. Context of quality
      2. Expectations of the society
      3. Competitive edge
      4. Constituents of competitive edge
      5. Competitive edge—differentiations and distinctiveness
      6. Continual improvement—a larger perspective
      7. Conclusion
    3. Chapter 3: Basics of Continual Improvement Process
      1. Continual improvement
      2. Process and its potential
      3. Zero defect level
      4. Is zero defect level attainable?
        1. Dabbawala of Bombay
        2. Plague, small pox, polio, leprosy
        3. Outcome
      5. Improvement as ‘restoration’ and ‘breakthrough’
      6. Technology
      7. Tools and techniques
      8. Managerial practices
      9. Model
      10. Conclusion
      11. Annexure 3A: Tools for quality and their brief description
      12. Brief description (1/2)
      13. Brief description (2/2)
    4. Chapter 4: Process and Quality of Process
      1. SIPOC—a process model
      2. An overall understanding of continual improvement process
        1. Phase 1
        2. Phase 2
        3. Phase 3
        4. Phase 4
      3. Defect
        1. Defect data and process quality
        2. Data on defects
      4. Sigma value of the process—a measure of quality
      5. Conclusion
      6. Annexure 4A: Guidelines on preparing defect checklist
  8. Section B: Scanning Methodology to Clean-up and Sanitise a Process—First Step to Continual Improvement
    1. Chapter 5: Process Analysis Against a Checklist of Process Requirements to be Met
      1. Background
      2. Checklist of requirements
        1. Process
        2. Illustration
      3. Screening/review of process
      4. Conclusion
      5. Annexure 5A
    2. Chapter 6: Process Analysis Through Flow Chart
      1. Flow chart: technique
      2. Flow chart: analysis (1/2)
      3. Flow chart: analysis (2/2)
        1. Case 1: Process of rewinding burnt motors
        2. Case 2: Complaints from outpatients at a hospital
      4. Process-centred approach
      5. Conclusion
    3. Chapter 7: Process Analysis: Interfering Factors and Action
      1. Process interference
      2. Checklist of interfering factors
      3. Interferences: applicability and analysis
        1. Illustrative examples
        2. Illustration 1
        3. Illustration 2
        4. Illustration 3
      4. Relevance to continual improvement project/problem
      5. Conclusion
    4. Chapter 8: Process Analysis for Defect Prevention
      1. Process review
      2. Reference base—listing for review of process
        1. Human dignity
        2. Unhygienic features
        3. Housekeeping
        4. Mistake proofing
        5. Process consumables
        6. ‘Clearance gate’ for process entry
        7. Misinterpretation of drawing, SOP, WI
        8. Gaps in defect prevention measures
          1. 1) Defect identification and detection analysis
          2. 2) Defect detection and control by operator
          3. 3) Defect control review
          4. 4) Defect prevention and dominant pattern
        9. Integration of review results
        10. Gaps in customer linkage
        11. Hidden defects
        12. Process capability
      3. Conclusion
      4. Annexure 8A: Self-control: an evaluation as applicable to manufacturing
    5. Chapter 9: Process Analysis for Gaps in Specification
      1. Specification
      2. Gap analysis: listing of gaps in specification (1/2)
      3. Gap analysis: listing of gaps in specification (2/2)
        1. Clarity of requirements
        2. Test and evaluation methods
        3. Rationale of a requirement—concern for customer
        4. Health and environmental requirement
        5. Safe requirement of dispatch
        6. Process(es)
        7. Material(s)
        8. Requirement compatibility (with usage conditions)
        9. Requirement and customer complaint
        10. Mandatory rules and regulations
        11. Quality critical to customer
        12. Juranian classification of customer quality needs
        13. Customer requirements and their technical assessment
        14. Skills and knowledge of process
      4. Conclusion
      5. Annexure 9A
      6. Annexure 9B
      7. Annexure 9C: Note on Juranian classification of quality needs
        1. Stated needs and real needs
        2. Perceived needs
        3. Cultural needs
        4. Needs traceable to unintended use
        5. Human safety
        6. User friendly
      8. Annexure 9D: Analysis of customer requirements and their seriousness
    6. Chapter 10: Process Analysis: Customer Interface
      1. Customer link
      2. Scrutiny of customer needs
      3. Customer interface (1/3)
      4. Customer interface (2/3)
      5. Customer interface (3/3)
        1. Culture of concern for customer
        2. Cost-effectiveness
        3. Profit
        4. Customer dissatisfaction and satisfaction
        5. Kano’s analysis
        6. Customer trust and confidence
        7. Value addition to customer
        8. Discovering and knowing customers
        9. Customers’ view—new products and service
        10. Lead customer
        11. Listening to customers
      6. Conclusion
    7. Chapter 11: Failure Mode Effect Analysis
      1. Background
      2. Purpose
      3. Meaning of FMEA
      4. Analysis (1/2)
      5. Analysis (2/2)
        1. Severity (S)
        2. Occurrence (O)
        3. Detection (D)
        4. Format for analysis
        5. Action phase
        6. Glossary of failure modes and causes
      6. Conclusion
      7. Annexure 11A
      8. Annexure 11B: Failure mode reference list
      9. Typical key words and phrases
  9. Section C: Measurement of Process Defect Level and Process Cycle Efficiency
    1. Chapter 12: Basics of Six Sigma Technique
      1. Background
      2. Thought process of Six Sigma
      3. Process, quality characteristic and specification
      4. Specification, variation, process capability
      5. Process capability and quality system
      6. Statistical control
      7. Normal law
      8. Specification, process capability, defects and key thoughts of Six Sigma technique
      9. Process capability and Sigma value of the process
      10. Obtaining the Sigma value of a process: z value from defect rate
      11. z Table and its use
      12. Illustrative examples: calculating z value from defect data
        1. Illustration 1
        2. Illustration 2
      13. First time yield (FTY)
        1. Illustration 3
        2. Illustration 4
      14. First time yield and z value
        1. Illustration 5
        2. Layout for calculation
      15. Rolled throughput of a process
        1. Illustration 6
        2. Illustration 7
        3. Illustration 8
        4. Illustration 9
        5. Illustration 10
      16. A note on m, opportunities for defects
      17. Sustainability of improvement
        1. First time yield and z value of a process chain
      18. Application of Six Sigma tool (1/2)
      19. Application of Six Sigma tool (2/2)
        1. Illustration 11
        2. Illustration 12
        3. Illustration 13
        4. Illustration 14
        5. Assessment of cycle time
        6. Cycle time of inspection and testing (CT. I):
        7. Note on the number of inspections per accepted item
        8. Cycle time to analyse defectives (CT. A)
        9. Cycle time for repair of defects (CT. R)
      20. Problem 1
        1. Illustration 15
      21. Analysis
      22. Normalised yield (YN)
        1. Illustration 16
      23. Process capability analysis (PCA)
      24. Conclusion
      25. Annexure 12A: Exercises on Six Sigma calculations
        1. Exercise 1
        2. Exercise 2
        3. Exercise 3
        4. Exercise 4
        5. Exercise 5
        6. Exercise 6
        7. Exercise 7
        8. Exercise 8
        9. Individual process
        10. Process chain
        11. Exercise 9
    2. Chapter 13: Improving Process Flow and Speed to Achieve Lean Process
      1. Background
      2. Process flow and process speed
        1. Two streams of quality improvement
      3. Checklist of factors having a bearing on process flow and speed
      4. Lean Six Sigma
      5. Addressing the factors of hold-up
        1. Waiting for approval
        2. Waiting for maintenance
        3. Movement
        4. Searching
        5. Formats and records
        6. Meetings
        7. Late starting and early closing
        8. Push, pull and out
      6. Process set-up
      7. Work in process, lead time and process cycle efficiency
        1. Work in process
        2. Lead time/process speed
        3. Analysis of process lead time and process velocity
        4. Process cycle efficiency (PCE)—the ‘lean metric’
        5. Lean Six Sigma
      8. Conclusion
  10. Section D: Continual Improvement Process Framework
    1. Chapter 14: Organising for Continual Improvement
      1. Scope
      2. The big picture of continual improvement
      3. Strategy plan
      4. Statistical techniques—understanding their importance
        1. Improvement: macro–micro
      5. Micro-category
      6. Guidelines to project selection
      7. Authors’ observation on learning programmes
      8. Conclusion
    2. Chapter 15: Anchor Points of the Continual Improvement Thought Process
      1. Background
      2. Anchor points
        1. Questioning
        2. Critical thinking
        3. Check and verify: data orientation and data dependency
        4. Driving out the negatives
        5. Be a part of the solution, not the problem
        6. Conflict: confront and resolve; not sweep under carpet
        7. Seek opportunities for improvement
        8. Zero-based thinking
        9. Picturise the problem in all its details
        10. Comfort zone: disturb
        11. Out-of-box thinking
        12. Correction and corrective action
        13. Root cause
        14. Institutionalise the learning
        15. Horizontal deployment
        16. Consensus
        17. Fallacies to be avoided
        18. Headache—headache-pill fallacy
        19. Challenge oneself
        20. Factors of ‘appeal and feel good’—have a re-look
      3. Conclusion
      4. Annexure 15A
      5. Annexure 15B
      6. Annexure 15C
    3. Chapter 16: Involvement of People in Continual Improvement Process
      1. Background
      2. Productivity
      3. Organising an enterprise
        1. Fading style
        2. New style
        3. Role of knowledge worker
      4. Continual improvement and productivity in an organisation
      5. Distinct features of a people-friendly environment
        1. Inner democracy
        2. Learning environment
        3. Education and training
        4. Decentralisation
        5. Customer and competitor orientation
        6. Value addition
        7. Blind spots to avoid
        8. CEO’s concern/task
      6. Reality check: involvement
      7. Impact of continual improvement
      8. Conclusion
      9. Annexure 16A
      10. Annexure 16B
      11. Annexure 16C
      12. Annexure 16D
      13. Annexure 16E
      14. Annexure 16F
      15. Annexure 16G
      16. Annexure 16H
    4. Chapter 17: Soft Skills for Effective Practice of Continual Improvement
      1. Background
      2. Communication
        1. Purpose
        2. Effectiveness
        3. Code of practice
      3. Communication gap
        1. Feeling of no need for communication
      4. Violence in communication
      5. Meeting
        1. Purpose
        2. Road map
        3. Effectiveness of the meeting
        4. Specimen types: behavioural and killer phrases
        5. Behavioural
        6. Role of chairman of the meeting
        7. Characteristics: good/bad meeting
      6. Impact on individuals
      7. Conclusion
    5. Chapter 18: Tools of Logical Thinking and Qualitative Analysis
      1. Background
      2. Quality thinking
      3. Tools of qualitative analysis
      4. Brainstorming (1/4)
      5. Brainstorming (2/4)
      6. Brainstorming (3/4)
      7. Brainstorming (4/4)
        1. Customer requirements and their classification
        2. Factors that are critical to quality
        3. Flow diagram
        4. Checklist
        5. Cause–effect diagram (CED)
        6. Relationship diagram
        7. Logical handling of surmises
        8. Practicality analysis
        9. Priority Analysis
        10. Force-field analysis
        11. Affinity diagram (KJ diagram named after Kawakita Jiro, the one who developed the method)
        12. Illustrative example 1
        13. Illustrative example 2
        14. Comparing product/service with the nearest best competitor
      8. Conclusion
    6. Chapter 19: Tools and Techniques: Problem Solving Through Pattern Discovery and Probing
      1. Background
      2. Problem
      3. Pattern discovery and investigation route
      4. Data orientation
      5. Tools and techniques
        1. Run chart: Type 1
        2. Run chart: Type 2
        3. Stratification
        4. Pareto law
        5. Tally sheet
      6. Frequency distribution/histogram
      7. Relationship: scatter diagram
        1. Description
        2. Procedure
        3. Box plot
      8. Break-even point (1/3)
      9. Break-even point (2/3)
      10. Break-even point (3/3)
        1. Statistical tolerancing
        2. Safety factor with statistical basis
        3. Control chart on measurements: X-bar and R chart for investigation on process capability
      11. Few approaches: critical incident analysis, engineering a failure and defect generation at levels that generate failures
      12. Benchmarking
        1. Meaning
        2. Scope of benchmarking
        3. Benchmarking attitude
      13. Conclusion
      14. Annexure 19A
      15. Annexure 19B
      16. Annexure 19C
        1. Calculation of 25th, 50th and 75th percentiles
      17. Annexure 19D
        1. Illustrative example: engineering a failure
    7. Chapter 20: Problem, Data and Interpretation of Data
      1. Thought routine: problem and data
      2. Reality check: problem formulation
        1. Example 1
        2. Example 2
        3. Example 3
        4. Example 4
        5. Example 5
      3. A digression—reference to research in neurology on data
        1. Types of data and summarisation of data
        2. Illustration: measurement of data
        3. Illustration: attribute data
      4. Investigation
      5. Statistical linkage to investigation
      6. Data on results and data on process
      7. Statistical techniques
        1. Interpretation of data: a few illustrations
      8. Data: a macro view
      9. Conclusion
      10. Annexure 20A
  11. Section E: Statistical Techniques for Investigation and Improvement
    1. Chapter 21: Measuring System
      1. Importance of the measuring system
      2. Measuring system: illustration
      3. Certain fundamental properties that define a ‘good’ measurement system
        1. Adequate discrimination and sensitivity
        2. Measurement system ought to be in statistical control
        3. Measurement system fit for product control
        4. Measurement system fit for process control
      4. Traceability
        1. Purpose
        2. Definition
        3. Mechanics
      5. Conclusion
      6. Annexure 21A: Framework of a system of control on measurements and measuring devices
    2. Chapter 22: Measurement Process: Statistical Concepts
      1. Measurement system ‘ideal’ but measurements are not identical
      2. Pattern of variation: measurements
      3. Statistical properties of measurement data
        1. Stability
        2. Bias
        3. Variation
        4. Bias and variation: relationship
      4. Bias: assessment
        1. Test of significance of bias
        2. Linearity
      5. Measurement capability
      6. Relationship: product specification and process capability and measurement system
        1. Precision
        2. Repeatability
        3. Reproducibility
        4. Gage R&R
        5. Consistency and uniformity
        6. Assessment of gage R&R
        7. Applicability criteria: gage R&R, width error
      7. Causes of bias/linearity, and inadequate repeatability and reproducibility
      8. Conclusion
    3. Chapter 23: Product/Process Comparison: Statistical Tests of Significance
      1. Statistical significance
        1. Situation A
        2. Situation B
        3. Statistical laws, tests associated with statistical law: single- or double-sided test
        4. Statistical significance: probability
        5. Single- and double-sided tests
        6. Test procedure
      2. Conclusion
      3. Illustrative example 1
      4. Illustrative example 2
      5. Illustrative example 3
      6. Illustrative example 4
      7. Illustrative example 5
      8. Illustrative example 6
      9. Illustrative example 7
      10. Illustrative example 8
      11. Illustrative example 9
      12. Illustrative example 10
      13. Annexure (1/2)
      14. Annexure (2/2)
        1. Statistical tables
        2. Table A
        3. Table B: t-Distribution
        4. Table C
        5. Table D
        6. Table E
        7. Table F
        8. Table G
        9. Table H
      15. Summary of statistical tests of significance
    4. Chapter 24: Analysis of Frequencies, Analysis of Variance, Regression and Correlation Analysis
      1. Analysis of frequencies: illustration
        1. Type 1
        2. Type 2
      2. Analysis of variance (ANOVA): comparison of averages of more than two samples, one way classification
        1. Certain points to note
      3. ANOVA: two-way classification
        1. Components of variation
      4. Regression analysis
        1. Exercise: regression analysis
        2. Fitting the line of best fit
      5. Correlation analysis
        1. Illustrative example
        2. Certain points to note: interpretation
      6. Conclusion
    5. Chapter 25: Technology Improvement: Application of Design of Experiments
      1. Statistics, a key technology
      2. Industrial experimentation
      3. Taguchi’s methods
      4. Principles of Taguchi’s methods
      5. Design of experiments
      6. An important observation
      7. Understanding OA design
      8. Standard OA designs and their linear graphs
      9. Steps in designing, conducting and analysing an experiment
        1. Selection of factors
        2. Selection of number of levels
        3. Selection of OA and assignment of factors and/or interactions to columns
        4. Conduct the experiment
        5. Analysis of experimental results
        6. Confirmation experiment
        7. Selection of OA and allocation of factors and/or interaction to columns–illustrative examples
      10. Analysis of experimental results: response by measurement (variable) data—illustrative example 1 (1/2)
      11. Analysis of experimental results: response by measurement (variable) data—illustrative example 1 (2/2)
        1. Answer
      12. Analysis of experimental results: response by attribute data—illustrative example 2 (1/2)
      13. Analysis of experimental results: response by attribute data—illustrative example 2 (2/2)
        1. Factors and levels
        2. Selection of design layout
        3. Response summary data
        4. Correction factor
        5. Sum of squares
        6. Analysis of variance table
      14. Summary of results—average response of significant factors and interactions
      15. Conclusion
      16. Annexure 25A
  12. Section F: Continual Improvement—Managerial Aspects
    1. Chapter 26: Managing Continual Improvement Project
      1. Background
      2. Management commitment
      3. Training programmes
      4. Team building
      5. Continual improvement projects—classification
      6. Project team—route map for handling a project
      7. Database
      8. Overall assessments: continual improvement projects
      9. Common reasons for setback in CIP
      10. Key points to comply with for healthy environment
      11. Synergistic impact
      12. Conclusion
      13. Annexure 26A
      14. Annexure 26B
      15. Annexure 26C
      16. Annexure 26D
      17. Annexure 26E
    2. Chapter 27: Route Map for Handling a Project
      1. Background
      2. Discussion
      3. Route map—DMAIC
      4. Define stage
      5. Measure stage
      6. Analyse stage
      7. Illustrative example 1: feedback from outpatients
      8. Illustrative example 2: process speed investigation
      9. Improve stage
      10. Control stage
      11. Illustrative example 3: analysis of difficulties in the purchase department
        1. Definition stage
        2. Measure stage
        3. Analyse stage
        4. Special data
        5. Inference from data
        6. Wider participation
        7. Improve stage
        8. Control stage
        9. Consolidation stage
        10. Use of techniques
      12. Assessment of each phase of DMAIC
      13. Continual improvement Six Sigma, jargons
      14. Conclusion
      15. Annexure 27A
      16. Annexure 27B
    3. Chapter 28: Continual Improvement: Service Sector
      1. Background
      2. Peculiarities—non-profit institution
        1. Volunteerism
      3. Peculiarities—service sector
      4. Service industry: few new features of competitive edge
      5. Training
      6. Areas of concern
      7. Conclusion
    4. Chapter 29: Animal World and Self-improvement
      1. Background
      2. Role model
        1. Love and adopt
        2. Abhor and avoid
      3. Conclusion
  13. Section G: Continual Improvement—Larger Vital Issues
    1. Chapter 30: Culture of Innovation and Improvement*
      1. Background
      2. Vision—characteristic features
      3. Vision—illustrative examples
      4. Vision and institution
      5. Clear vision
      6. Entrepreneurship par excellence
        1. The national sample survey (NSS)
        2. The central statistical organisation (CSO)
        3. Planning
        4. United nations statistical commission
        5. International statistical education centre (ISEC)
      7. Ventures of Prof. P. C. Mahalanobis
        1. Sankhya, the indian journal of statistics
        2. The press
        3. Computers
        4. Computer research
        5. Documentation research and training centre (DRTC)
      8. Recruitment—focus on the potential and not on track record
      9. Unorthodoxy
        1. Be unorthodox to build a new culture for research to flourish with freedom
        2. New areas of research
      10. Networking for brain irrigation
      11. An observation
      12. The Professor, was he a dictator?
      13. An urgent task
      14. Conclusion
    2. Chapter 31: Environment for Continual Improvement Process—Organisational Practices
      1. Background
      2. A long journey
        1. Around 1912
        2. In 2005
        3. In 2006
      3. Challenges ahead
      4. People—the nucleus of an institution
      5. Stephen Covey’s classification
        1. Youth and intellectual capital
        2. Employee and organisation/institution
      6. Managerial practices (1/2)
      7. Managerial practices (2/2)
        1. Attitude–altitude
        2. Generating ideas and suggestions
        3. Check bureaucratic approach
        4. Simplicity and informality
        5. Fear of failure
        6. Creative and innovative
        7. Empowering people
        8. Break for success lapsing into failure
        9. Few practices to boost the tempo
        10. ‘Forget it’
      8. Institution and its individuals
        1. Nature of unknown
      9. Conclusion
  14. Section H: Continual Improvement—Starting off and Practical Hints
    1. Chapter 32: From Where to Begin?
      1. Background
      2. Outlook on housekeeping
      3. Benchmark
      4. Cardinal principles
      5. Issues covered
        1. Six Sigma status and housekeeping
        2. Housekeeping and human dignity
        3. Housekeeping and unhygienic feature—type 1
        4. Housekeeping and unhygienic feature—type 2
        5. Housekeeping and stores
        6. Housekeeping—obsolete and slow-moving items and records
        7. Housekeeping—scrap handling
        8. Housekeeping—water leaks, storm water hazard, oil spillage
        9. Housekeeping—material handling
        10. Housekeeping at a process by process owner
        11. Housekeeping—adequacy and upkeep of facilities
        12. Housekeeping—training
        13. Housekeeping—measurement and monitoring
        14. Place of 5S in relation to housekeeping
        15. Housekeeping and its benchmark: garden—green and hospital—clean
        16. Wholistic approach
      6. Conclusion
    2. Chapter 33: Continual Improvement—Relevance to Individuals
      1. Background
      2. Individual and work
      3. Work and improvement
      4. Conclusion
    3. Chapter 34: Epilogue
  15. Glossary (1/3)
  16. Glossary (2/3)
  17. Glossary (3/3)
  18. Bibliography
  19. Author Index
  20. Subject Index (1/3)
  21. Subject Index (2/3)
  22. Subject Index (3/3)

Product information

  • Title: Continual Improvement Process by Pearson
  • Author(s): N. S. Sreenivasan, V. Narayana
  • Release date: May 2024
  • Publisher(s): Pearson India
  • ISBN: 9781299446847