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Control of Non-conventional Synchronous Motors

Book Description

Classical synchronous motors are the most effective device to drive industrial production systems and robots with precision and rapidity. However, numerous applications require efficient controls in non-conventional situations.
Firstly, this is the case with synchronous motors supplied by thyristor line-commutated inverters, or with synchronous motors with faults on one or several phases.
Secondly, many drive systems use non-conventional motors such as polyphase (more than three phases) synchronous motors, synchronous motors with double excitation, permanent magnet linear synchronous motors, synchronous and switched reluctance motors, stepping motors and piezoelectric motors.
This book presents efficient controls to improve the use of these non-conventional motors.

Contents

1. Self-controlled Synchronous Motor: Principles of Function and Simplified Control Model, Francis Labrique and François Baudart.
2. Self-controlled Synchronous Motor: Dynamic Model Including the Behavior of Damper Windings and Commutation Overlap, Ernest Matagne.
3. Synchronous Machines in Degraded Mode, Damien Flieller, Ngac Ky Nguyen, Hervé Schwab and Guy Sturtzer.
4. Control of the Double-star Synchronous Machine Supplied by PWM Inverters, Mohamed Fouad Benkhoris.
5. Vectorial Modeling and Control of Multiphase Machines with Non-salient Poles Supplied by an Inverter, Xavier Kestelyn and Éric Semail.
6. Hybrid Excitation Synchronous Machines, Nicolas Patin and Lionel Vido.
7. Advanced Control of the Linear Synchronous Motor, Ghislain Remy and Pierre-Jean Barre.
8. Variable Reluctance Machines: Modeling and Control, Mickael Hilairet, Thierry Lubin and Abdelmounaïm Tounzi.
9. Control of the Stepping Motor, Bruno Robert and Moez Feki .
10. Control of Piezoelectric Actuators, Frédéric Giraud and Betty Lemaire-Semail.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Introduction
  5. Chapter 1: Self-controlled Synchronous Motor: Principles of Function and Simplified Control Model
    1. 1.1. Introduction
    2. 1.2. Design aspects specific to the self-controlled synchronous machine
    3. 1.3. Simplified model for the study of steady state operation
    4. 1.4. Study of steady-state operation
    5. 1.5. Operation at nominal speed, voltage and current
    6. 1.6. Operation with a torque smaller than the nominal torque
    7. 1.7. Operation with a speed below the nominal speed
    8. 1.8. Running as a generator
    9. 1.9. Equivalence of a machine with a commutator and brushes
    10. 1.10. Equations inferred from the theory of circuits with sliding contacts
    11. 1.11. Evaluation of alternating currents circulating in steady state in the damper windings
    12. 1.12. Transposition of the study to the case of a negative rotational speed
    13. 1.13. Variant of the base assembly
    14. 1.14. Conclusion
    15. 1.15. List of the main symbols used
    16. 1.16. Bibliography
  6. Chapter 2: Self-controlled Synchronous Motor: Dynamic Model Including the Behavior of Damper Windings and Commutation Overlap
    1. 2.1. Introduction
    2. 2.2. Choice of the expression of Nk
    3. 2.3. Expression of fluxes
    4. 2.4. General properties of coefficients <X>, <Y> and <Z>
    5. 2.5. Electrical dynamic equations
    6. 2.6. Expression of electromechanical variables
    7. 2.7. Expression of torque
    8. 2.8. Writing of equations in terms of coenergy
    9. 2.9. Application to control
    10. 2.10. Conclusion
    11. 2.11. Appendix 1: value of coefficients <X>, <Y> and <Z>
    12. 2.12. Appendix 2: derivatives of coefficients <X>, <Y> and <Z>
    13. 2.13. Appendix 3: simplifications for small μ
    14. 2.14. Appendix 4 – List of the main symbols used in Chapters 1 and 2
    15. 2.15. Bibliography
  7. Chapter 3: Synchronous Machines in Degraded Mode
    1. 3.1. General introduction
      1. 3.1.1. Analysis of failures of the set converter-machine: converters with MOSFET transistors
        1. 3.1.1.1. Introduction
    2. 3.2. Analysis of the main causes of failure
      1. 3.2.1. Failure of the inverter
        1. 3.2.1.1 Failure of the transistors
        2. 3.2.1.2. Failure of the bridge drivers
        3. 3.2.1.3. Failure of electrolytic capacitors
      2. 3.2.2. Other failures
    3. 3.3. Reliability of a permanent magnet synchronous motors drive
      1. 3.3.1. Environmental conditions in the motor industry
      2. 3.3.2. The two reliability reports: MIL-HdbK-217 and RDF2000
        1. 3.3.2.1. Reliability report: MIL-HdbK-217
        2. 3.3.2.2. Reliability report: RDF 2000
      3. 3.3.3. Failure rate of permanent magnet synchronous motors actuators
    4. 3.4. Conclusion
    5. 3.5. Optimal supplies of permanent magnet synchronous machines in the presence of faults
      1. 3.5.1. Introduction: the problem of a-b-c controls
    6. 3.6. Supplies of faulty synchronous machines with non-sinusoidal back electromagnetic force
      1. 3.6.1. Generalization of the modeling
      2. 3.6.2. A heuristic approach to the solution
      3. 3.6.3. First optimization of ohmic losses without constraint on the homopolar current
        1. 3.6.3.1. Application to a three-phase machine with sinusoidal back emf
        2. 3.6.3.2. Application to a three-phase machine with trapezoidal back emfs
      4. 3.6.4. Second optimization of ohmic losses with the sum of currents of non-faulty phases being zero
      5. 3.6.5. Third optimization of ohmic losses with a homopolar current of zero (in all phases)
      6. 3.6.6. Global formulations
        1. 3.6.6.1. Case 1: a fault current with independent phases
        2. 3.6.6.2. Case 2: a fault current that is independent of other phase currents, with a homopolar current of 0 on n − 1 phases
        3. 3.6.6.3. Case 3: a fault current independent of the other phase currents, with homopolar current of 0 on n phases
        4. 3.6.6.4. Application to a five-phase machine and independent phases with two phases in open circuit
        5. 3.6.6.5. Application to a non-sinusoidal five-phase machine with a phase in open circuit
        6. 3.6.6.6. Application to a sinusoidal five-phase machine in the presence of saturation
        7. 3.6.6.7. Application to a five-phase machine with sinusoidal back emfs and phase a in short circuit
    7. 3.7. Experimental learning strategy in closed loop to obtain optimal currents in all cases
    8. 3.8. Simulation results
    9. 3.9. General conclusion
    10. 3.10. Glossary
    11. 3.11. Bibliography
  8. Chapter 4: Control of the Double-star Synchronous Machine Supplied by PWM Inverters
    1. 4.1. Introduction
    2. 4.2. Description of the electrical actuator
    3. 4.3. Basic equations
      1. 4.3.1. Voltage equations
      2. 4.3.2. Equation of the electromagnetic torque
    4. 4.4. Dynamic models of the double-star synchronous machine
      1. 4.4.1. Dynamic model in referential d1q1d2q2
        1. 4.4.1.2. Voltage equations in referential d1q1d2q2
        2. 4.4.1.3. Expression of the electromagnetic torque in referential d1q1d2q2
      2. 4.4.2. Dynamic model in referential dqz1z2 z3z4
        1. 4.4.2.1. Voltage equations in referential d+q+d-q
        2. 4.4.2.2. Voltage equations in referential z1z2 z3z4
          1. 4.4.2.2.1. Generalization of the vectorial formalism
          2. 4.4.2.2.2. Projection of vectors on a six-dimensional orthonormal basis
          3. 4.4.2.2.3. Comments
          4. 4.4.2.2.4. Voltage equations in space z1z2z3z4
          5. 4.4.2.2.5. Voltage equations in space dqz1z2z3z4
        3. 4.4.2.3. Expression of electromagnetic torque in referential dqz1z2 z3z4
    5. 4.5. Control of the double-star synchronous machine
      1. 4.5.1. Control in referential d1q1d2q2
        1. 4.5.1.1. Decoupling algorithm
          1. 4.5.1.1.1. Principle of the decoupling approach
          2. 4.5.1.1.2. Complete diagonalization
          3. 4.5.1.1.3. Partial diagonalization
          4. 4.5.1.1.4. Validation of decoupling algorithms [TER 00]
        2. 4.5.1.2. Generation of current references
      2. 4.5.2. Control in referential dqz1z2z3z4
        1. 4.5.2.1. Decoupling algorithm
    6. 4.6. Bibliography
  9. Chapter 5: Vectorial Modeling and Control of Multiphase Machines with Non-salient Poles Supplied by an Inverter
    1. 5.1. Introduction and presentation of the electrical machines
    2. 5.2. Control model of inverter-fed permanent magnet synchronous machines
      1. 5.2.1. Characteristic spaces and generalization of the notion of an equivalent two-phase machine
        1. 5.2.1.1. Equations in the natural basis of the stator and general vectorial expression
        2. 5.2.1.2. Determination of a decoupling basis
        3. 5.2.1.3. Equations in the decoupling basis and independent energy fluxes
        4. 5.2.1.4. Fundamental harmonic properties offictitious machines
          1. 5.2.1.4.1. Characteristic harmonics groups
          2. 5.2.1.4.2. Relationship between emf harmonics and torque generated by a fictitious machine
          3. 5.2.1.4.3. Inductances and electrical time constants of fictitious machines: the impact of harmonics
        5. 5.2.1.5. Examples
          1. 5.2.1.5.1. Three-phase machine
          2. 5.2.1.5.2. Five-phase machine
      2. 5.2.2. The inverter seen from the machine
        1. 5.2.2.1. Three-leg inverter seen from the star-coupled three-phase machine
        2. 5.2.2.2. Generalization to n-leg inverters: fictitious two-phase inverters. Example of machine-five-leg inverter association
    3. 5.3. Torque control of multiphase machines
      1. 5.3.1. Control of currents in the natural basis
        1. 5.3.1.1. Statement of the method
        2. 5.3.1.2. Example: five-phase machine with trapezoidal emf
      2. 5.3.2. Control of currents in a decoupling basis
        1. 5.3.2.1. Statement of the method
        2. 5.3.2.2. Case of machines whose fictitious machines have sinusoidal emf
        3. 5.3.2.3. Case of machines whose fictitious machines are not sinusoidal emf
        4. 5.3.2.4. Example: five-phase machine with trapezoidal emf
          1. 5.3.2.4.1. Current control without compensation of emfs
          2. 5.3.2.4.2. Current control with compensation of emfs
    4. 5.4. Modeling and torque control of multiphase machines in degraded supply mode
      1. 5.4.1. Modeling of a machine with a supply defect
      2. 5.4.2. Torque control of a faulty machine
    5. 5.5. Bibliography
  10. Chapter 6: Hybrid Excitation Synchronous Machines
    1. 6.1. Description
      1. 6.1.1. Definition
      2. 6.1.2. Classification
        1. 6.1.2.1. HESMs in series
        2. 6.1.2.2. HESMs in parallel
          1. 6.1.2.2.1. HESMs in parallel with short circuit
          2. 6.1.2.2.2. HESM in parallel without short circuit
    2. 6.2. Modeling with the aim of control
      1. 6.2.1. Setting up equations
      2. 6.2.2. Formulation in components
      3. 6.2.3. Complete model
    3. 6.3. Control by model inversion
      1. 6.3.1. Aims of the torque control
      2. 6.3.2. Current control of the machine
      3. 6.3.3. Optimization and current inputs
    4. 6.4. Overspeed and flux weakening of synchronous machines
      1. 6.4.2. Flux weakening of synchronous machines with classical magnets
      2. 6.4.3. The unified approach to flux weakening using “optimal inputs”
    5. 6.4. Conclusion
    6. 6.5. Bibliography
  11. Chapter 7: Advanced Control of the Linear Synchronous Motor
    1. 7.1. Introduction
      1. 7.1.1. Historical review and applications in the field of linear motors
      2. 7.1.2. Presentation of linear synchronous motors
      3. 7.1.3. Technology of linear synchronous motors
      4. 7.1.4. Linear motor models using sinusoidal magneto-motive force assumption
      5. 7.1.5. Causal ordering graph representation
      6. 7.1.6. Advanced modeling of linear synchronous motors
    2. 7.2. Classical control of linear motors
      1. 7.2.1. State-of-the-art in linear motor controls
      2. 7.2.2. Control structure design using the COG inversion principles
      3. 7.2.3. Closed-loop control
        1. 7.3.3.1. Analysis of the current in a closed loop
        2. 7.3.3.2. Application to the linear motor studied (see Appendix, section 7.8)
        3. 7.3.3.3. Influence of parameter variations
        4. 7.3.3.4. Application to the linear motor studied (see Appendix, section 7.8)
    3. 7.3. Advanced control of linear motors
      1. 7.3.1. Multiple resonant controllers in a two-phase reference frame
      2. 7.3.2. Feed-forward controlfor the compensation of detent forces
      3. 7.3.3. Commands by the nth derivative for sensorless control
    4. 7.4. Conclusion
    5. 7.5. Nomenclature
    6. 7.6. Acknowledgment
    7. 7.7. Bibliography
    8. 7.8. Appendix: LMD10-050 Datasheet of ETEL
  12. Chapter 8: Variable Reluctance Machines: Modeling and Control
    1. 8.1. Introduction
    2. 8.2. Synchronous reluctance machines
      1. 8.2.1. Description and operating principle
      2. 8.2.2. Hypotheses and model of a Synchrel machine
      3. 8.2.3. Control of the Synchrel machine
        1. 8.2.3.1. Vector control with id constant
        2. 8.2.3.2. Maximum torque control
        3. 8.2.3.3. Maximum power factor control
        4. 8.2.3.4. Simulation results
      4. 8.2.4. Applications
    3. 8.3. Switched reluctance machines
      1. 8.3.1. Description and principle of operation
      2. 8.3.2. Hypotheses and direct model of the SRM
      3. 8.3.3. Control
        1. 8.3.3.1. Instantaneous torque control
        2. 8.3.3.2. Average torque control
        3. 8.3.3.3. Comparison of the two controls
        4. 8.3.3.4. Continuous conduction
      4. 8.3.4. Applications
    4. 8.4. Conclusion
    5. 8.5. Bibliography
  13. Chapter 9: Control of the Stepping Motor
    1. 9.1. Introduction
    2. 9.2. Modeling
      1. 9.2.1. Main technologies
      2. 9.2.2. The modeling hypotheses
      3. 9.2.3. The model
    3. 9.3. Control in open loop
      1. 9.3.1. The types of supply
      2. 9.3.2. The supply modes
      3. 9.3.3. Case of slow movement
        1. 9.3.3.1. Start
        2. 9.3.3.2. Oscillating response
        3. 9.3.3.3. Microstep control
        4. 9.3.3.4. Bang-Bang control on one step
      4. 9.3.4. Case of quick movement
        1. 9.3.4.1. Start−stop zone
        2. 9.3.4.2. Driving zone
        3. 9.3.4.3. Linear acceleration
        4. 9.3.4.4. Exponential acceleration
        5. 9.3.4.5. Programming of a speed profile
    4. 9.4. Controls in closed loop
      1. 9.4.1. Linear models
        1. 9.4.1.1. Modeling of the torque
        2. 9.4.1.2. Modelfor angle control
        3. 9.4.1.3. Model for frequency control
        4. 9.4.1.4. Choice criteria of control
      2. 9.4.2. Servo-control of speed
        1. 9.4.2.1. Development in Taylor series
        2. 9.4.2.2. Naslin polynomial
        3. 9.4.2.3. Correction by phase advance
        4. 9.4.2.4. PID correction
    5. 9.5. Advanced control: the control of chaos
      1. 9.5.1. Chaotic behavior
      2. 9.5.2. The model
      3. 9.5.3. Orbit stabilization
      4. 9.5.4. Absolute stability
      5. 9.5.5. Synthesis of the controller
      6. 9.5.6. Examples
    6. 9.6. Bibliography
  14. Chapter 10: Control of Piezoelectric Actuators
    1. 10.1. Introduction
      1. 10.1.1. Traveling wave ultrasonic motors: technology and usage
      2. 10.1.2. Functioning features
      3. 10.1.3. Models
        1. 10.1.3.1. Equivalent electrical diagram
        2. 10.1.3.2. “Hybrid” model
    2. 10.2. Causal model in the supplied voltage referential
      1. 10.2.1. Hypotheses and notations
      2. 10.2.2. Kinematics of the ideal rotor
        1. 10.2.2.1. Deformation of the stator
        2. 10.2.2.2. Definition of the contact point
        3. 10.2.2.3. Speed of the ideal rotor
        4. 10.2.2.4. Speeds in steady state in a particular case of excitation
      3. 10.2.3. Generation of the motor torque
      4. 10.2.4. Stator’s resonance
      5. 10.2.5. Calculation of modal reaction forces
      6. 10.2.6. Complete model
    3. 10.3. Causal model in the referential of the traveling wave
      1. 10.3.1. Park transform applied to the traveling wave motor
      2. 10.3.2. Transformed model
      3. 10.3.3. Study of the motor stall
      4. 10.3.4. Validation of the model
      5. 10.3.5. Torque estimator
    4. 10.4. Control based on a behavioral model
    5. 10.5. Controls based on a knowledge model
      1. 10.5.1. Inversion principle
      2. 10.5.2. Control structure inferred from the causal model: emphasis on self-control
        1. 10.5.2.1. Inversion of the tangential axis
        2. 10.5.2.2. Inversion of the normal axis
      3. 10.5.3. Practical carrying out of self-control
    6. 10.6. Conclusion
    7. 10.7. Bibliography
  15. List of Authors
  16. Index