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Convergence in Broadcast and Communications Media

Book Description

Convergence in Broadcast and Communications Media offers concise and accurate information for engineers and technicians tackling products and systems combining audio, video, data processing and communications. Without adequate fundamental knowledge of the core technologies, products could be flawed or even fail. John Watkinson has provided a definitive professional guide, designed as a standard point of reference for engineers, whether you are from an audio, video, computer or communications background.

Without assuming any background and starting from first principles, the four core technologies of image reproduction, sound reproduction, data processing and communications are described. Covering everything from digital fundamentals to conversion methods, sound and image technologies, compression techniques, digital coding principles, storage devices and the latest communications systems, the book shows how these technologies operate together and the necessary conversions that take place between them. Acronyms and buzzwords are introduced only after their purpose has been described in plain English - as the book serves to give a reliable grasp of the fundamentals. The criteria involved in determining image and sound quality are based on a thorough treatment of the human senses, a unique description of how motion portrayal works in managing systems.

John Watkinson is an international consultant in audio video and data recording. He is a Fellow of the AES, a member of the British Computer Society and a chartered information systems practitioner. He presents lectures, seminars, conference papers and training courses worldwide and writes for many industry magazines. His other books for Focal Press are widely acknowledged as standard reference works and industry `bibles'. John is author of MPEG2, The Art of Digital Video and the Art of Digital Audio, An Introduction to Digital Video, An Introduction to Digital Audio, The Art of Sound Reproduction, Television Fundamentals, Co-author of The Digital Interface Handbook and Contributor to The Loudspeaker and Headphone Handbook.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Dedication
  4. Title Page
  5. Copyright Page
  6. Table of Contents
  7. Preface
  8. Chapter 1 Introduction to convergent systems
    1. 1.1 What this book is about
    2. 1.2 Why binary?
    3. 1.3 Conversion
    4. 1.4 Integrated circuits
    5. 1.5 Storage technology
    6. 1.6 Noise and probability
    7. 1.7 Time compression and expansion
    8. 1.8 Error correction and concealment
    9. 1.9 Channel coding
    10. 1.10 Compression, JPEG and MPEG
    11. 1.11 Convergence and commercial television
    12. 1.12 Electronic cinema
    13. References
  9. Chapter 2 Digital processing principles
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Logic elements
    3. 2.3 Storage elements
    4. 2.4 Binary coding
    5. 2.5 Gain control
    6. 2.6 Floating-point coding
    7. 2.7 Modulo-n arithmetic
    8. 2.8 The Galois field
    9. 2.9 The phase-locked loop
    10. 2.10 Timebase correction
    11. 2.11 Programmers
    12. 2.12 The computer
    13. 2.13 The processor
    14. 2.14 Interrupts
    15. 2.15 Programmable timers
    16. 2.16 Memory management
    17. 2.17 The human interface
    18. 2.18 DSP
    19. 2.19 Multiplexing principles
    20. 2.20 Packets
    21. 2.21 Statistical multiplexing
    22. 2.22 Networks
  10. Chapter 3 Filters and transforms
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Transforms
    3. 3.3 Convolution
    4. 3.4 FIR and IIR filters
    5. 3.5 FIR filters
    6. 3.6 Sampling-rate conversion
    7. 3.7 Transforms and duality
    8. 3.8 The Fourier transform
    9. 3.9 The discrete cosine transform (DCT)
    10. 3.10 The wavelet transform
    11. References
  11. Chapter 4 Sampling
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Sampling
    3. 4.3 Reconstruction
    4. 4.4 Aperture effect
    5. 4.5 Sampling clock jitter
    6. 4.6 Quantizing
    7. 4.7 Quantizing error
    8. 4.8 Introduction to dither
    9. 4.9 Requantizing and digital dither
    10. 4.10 Dither techniques
      1. 4.10.1 Rectangular pdf dither
      2. 4.10.2 Triangular pdf dither
      3. 4.10.3 Gaussian pdf dither
    11. 4.11 Basic digital-to-analog conversion
    12. 4.12 Basic analog-to-digital conversion
    13. References
  12. Chapter 5 Sound
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 The deciBel
    3. 5.3 Audio level metering
    4. 5.4 The ear
    5. 5.5 Level and loudness
    6. 5.6 Frequency discrimination
    7. 5.7 Music and the ear
    8. 5.8 The physics of sound
    9. 5.9 How sound is radiated
    10. 5.10 Acoustics
    11. 5.11 Directionality in hearing
    12. 5.12 Microphone principles
    13. 5.13 Microphone mechanisms
    14. 5.14 Stereo and surround sound
    15. 5.15 Stereo and surround microphones
    16. 5.16 M–S stereo
    17. 5.17 Digitizing audio
    18. 5.18 Audio convertors
    19. 5.19 Oversampling in audio
    20. 5.20 Noise shaping
    21. References
  13. Chapter 6 Light
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 What is light?
    3. 6.3 Sources of light
    4. 6.4 Optical principles
    5. 6.5 Photometric units
    6. 6.6 MTF, contrast and sharpness
    7. 6.7 The human visual system
    8. 6.8 The eye
    9. 6.9 Gamma
    10. 6.10 Motion portrayal and dynamic resolution
    11. 6.11 Background strobing and frame rate
    12. 6.12 Colour
    13. 6.13 Colour vision
    14. 6.14 Colorimetry
    15. 6.15 The CIE chromaticity diagram
    16. 6.16 Whites
    17. 6.17 Colour matching functions
    18. 6.18 Choice of primaries
    19. References
  14. Chapter 7 Image portrayal
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Film
    3. 7.3 Spatial sampling
    4. 7.4 Spatial aperture effect
    5. 7.5 Spatial oversampling
    6. 7.6 Temporal aperture effects
    7. 7.7 Analog video
    8. 7.8 Synchronizing
    9. 7.9 Bandwidth and definition
    10. 7.10 Interlace
    11. 7.11 Colour television
    12. 7.12 Constant luminance
    13. 7.13 Analog colour television signals
    14. 7.14 Digital colour signals
    15. 7.15 Digital colour space
    16. 7.16 Telecine
    17. 7.17 Conversion between television and computer formats
    18. 7.18 The importance of motion compensation
    19. 7.19 Motion-estimation techniques
    20. 7.20 Motion-compensated picture rate conversion
    21. 7.21 Motion-compensated telecine system
    22. 7.22 Camera shake compensation
    23. 7.23 Motion-compensated de-interlacing
    24. 7.24 Aspect ratios
    25. References
  15. Chapter 8 Presentation
    1. 8.1 Display principles
    2. 8.2 The monochrome CRT
    3. 8.3 The colour CRT
    4. 8.4 The projection CRT
    5. 8.5 Plasma displays
    6. 8.6 Scanning lasers
    7. 8.7 Micromirror projectors
    8. 8.8 Temporal effects
    9. 8.9 Display processors
    10. 8.10 Optical filtering
    11. 8.11 Loudspeaker principles
    12. 8.12 Loudspeaker mechanisms
    13. 8.13 Directivity
    14. 8.14 The moving-coil speaker
    15. 8.15 Low-frequency reproduction
    16. 8.16 Crossover networks
    17. 8.17 Enclosures
    18. 8.18 Active loudspeakers
    19. 8.19 Loudspeaker criteria for stereo and surround sound
    20. References
  16. Chapter 9 Compression
    1. 9.1 Introduction to compression
    2. 9.2 Compression standards
    3. 9.3 Profiles, levels and layers
    4. 9.4 Spatial and temporal redundancy in MPEG
    5. 9.5 I and P coding
    6. 9.6 Bidirectional coding
    7. 9.7 Coding applications
    8. 9.8 Spatial compression
    9. 9.9 Scanning and run-length/variable-length coding
    10. 9.10 A bidirectional coder
    11. 9.11 Slices
    12. 9.12 Handling interlaced pictures
    13. 9.13 An MPEG-2 coder
    14. 9.14 The elementary stream
    15. 9.15 An MPEG-2 decoder
    16. 9.16 Coding artifacts
    17. 9.17 Processing MPEG-2 and concatenation
    18. 9.18 Audio compression
    19. 9.19 Sound quality measurement
    20. 9.20 Audio compression tools
    21. 9.21 Sub-band coding
    22. 9.22 Compression formats
    23. 9.23 MPEG Audio compression
    24. 9.24 MPEG Layer I
    25. 9.25 MPEG Layer II
    26. 9.26 MPEG Layer III
    27. 9.27 MPEG-2 AAC
    28. 9.28 Dolby AC-3
    29. References
  17. Chapter 10 Digital coding principles
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Types of transmission channel
    3. 10.3 Transmission lines
    4. 10.4 Types of recording medium
    5. 10.5 Magnetic recording
    6. 10.6 Azimuth recording and rotary heads
    7. 10.7 Optical and magneto-optical disks
    8. 10.8 Equalization and data separation
    9. 10.9 Slicing and jitter rejection
    10. 10.10 Channel coding
    11. 10.11 Simple codes
    12. 10.12 Group codes
    13. 10.13 Randomizing and encryption
    14. 10.14 Partial response
    15. 10.15 Synchronizing
    16. 10.16 Basic error correction
    17. 10.17 Concealment by interpolation
    18. 10.18 Parity
    19. 10.19 Block and convolutional codes
    20. 10.20 Cyclic codes
    21. 10.21 Introduction to the Reed–-Solomon codes
    22. 10.22 Correction by erasure
    23. 10.23 Interleaving
    24. 10.24 Product codes
      1. Appendix 10.1 Calculation of Reed–-Solomon generator polynomials
    25. References
  18. Chapter 11 Storage devices
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Disk storage
    3. 11.3 Magnetic disks
    4. 11.4 Accessing the blocks
    5. 11.5 Servo-surface disks
    6. 11.6 Winchester technology
    7. 11.7 The disk controller
    8. 11.8 Defect handling
    9. 11.9 RAID arrays
    10. 11.10 Disk servers
    11. 11.11 Optical disk principles
    12. 11.12 Focus and tracking systems
    13. 11.13 Structure of a DVD player
    14. 11.14 Digital video tape
    15. 11.15 The rotary head tape transport
    16. 11.16 Digital video cassettes
    17. 11.17 DVTR block diagram
    18. 11.18 Picture in shuttle
    19. 11.19 DV and DVCPRO
  19. Chapter 12 Communication systems
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Production-related interfaces
    3. 12.3 SDI
    4. 12.4 SDTI
    5. 12.5 ASI
    6. 12.6 AES/EBU
    7. 12.7 Telephone-based systems
    8. 12.8 Digital television broadcasting
    9. 12.9 MPEG packets and time stamps
    10. 12.10 Program clock reference
    11. 12.11 Program Specific Information (PSI)
    12. 12.12 Transport stream multiplexing
    13. 12.13 Remultiplexing
    14. 12.14 Broadcast modulation techniques
    15. 12.15 OFDM
    16. 12.16 Error correction in digital television broadcasting
    17. 12.17 DVB
    18. 12.18 The DVB receiver
    19. 12.19 ATSC
    20. 12.20 Networks
    21. 12.21 Network arbitration
    22. 12.22 FireWire
    23. 12.23 Broadband networks and ATM
    24. 12.24 ATM AALs
    25. References
  20. Index