Because they are such a nettlesome issue, performance appraisals have been the subject of a great deal of empirical research, scholarly writing, and advice for practitioners. You have probably examined a published work or two on the topic while strolling the aisles of a bookstore. And if you are an experienced manager in a typical business organization, you probably have witnessed the introduction and retirement of one new performance appraisal system after another (the half-life of many performance appraisal systems still is approximately 2 to 3 years in many organizations).

Why have we written this book given the availability of so much material already intended to improve the appraisal process? Although many performance appraisal ...

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