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Convincing Rebel Fighters to Disarm

Book Description

One of the key mission objectives of the UN Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC) was to disarm and repatriate foreign combatants in the eastern region of the country. To achieve this, MONUC adopted a „push and pull" strategy.

This involved applying military pressure while at the same time offering opportunities for voluntary disarmament and repatriation for armed combatants of the elusive but deadly Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) – a predominantly Rwandan Hutu armed group in eastern DRC. As part of its "pull" strategy, MONUC embarked on one of the most sophisticated Information Operations (IO) campaigns in UN history with the core objective of convincing thousands of individual combatants and commanders of the FDLR to voluntarily disarm and join the UN’s Demobilization, Disarmament, Repatriation, Resettlement and Reintegration programme (DDRRR).

This book is derived from studies of the narratives, coordination and effectiveness of the UN’s IO in support of DDRRR and how the UN has integrated IO as part of its Mission peace support operations.

This book advances contemporary understanding of the relative importance of communication models and their interactions within conflict settings. It provides instruments with which conflict and communication analysts can compare predictions and rationalize Information impacts for future conflicts.

About the author

Dr. Jacob Udo-Udo Jacob teaches Communications & Media Studies at the American University of Nigeria. He earned his PhD in Communication Studies from the University of Leeds, United Kingdom

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title
  3. Copyright
  4. Table of Contents
  5. List of Tables and Figures
  6. List of Abbreviations
  7. Preface
  8. 1 From Peace Propaganda to Information Intervention
    1. 1.1 Information Intervention in History
    2. 1.2 Metzl’s Concept of Information Intervention: Clearing Conceptual Landscapes
    3. 1.3 Reactionary and Developmental Information Intervention
    4. 1.4 “Phase II” Information Intervention in the DRC
  9. 2 A Foucauldian View of UN Information Intervention
  10. 3 The Liberal Institutionalist Foundations of Post–Cold War UN Information Operations
  11. 4 Between Propaganda and UN’s Public Information Operations
    1. 4.1 The UN “Propaganda” Doctrine
    2. 4.2 Outsourcing “Peace Propaganda”: UN Partnership with NGOs
  12. 5 A Brief History of Ethnicity, Conflicts and Crisis of Citizenship in the DRC
    1. 5.1 The Roots, Tactics and Ethnic Motivations of the “First DRC War”
    2. 5.2 Rwandan Roots of the Congolese Conflict
    3. 5. 3 The FDLR
    4. 5.4 South Kivu: Autochtonie and the Crises of Citizenship
    5. 5.5 Brief Notes on Key Flash Points in the DRC
  13. 6 From Authenticity to Governmentality: A Brief History of the Media in the DRC
    1. 6.1 Era of the “Authentic” Media
    2. 6.2 Era of Débrouillez-vous (1990–1997)
    3. 6.3 Era of Official Silence, Repression and Coupage (1997–2001)
    4. 6.4 Era of Intervention and Governmentality (2001–)
  14. 7 Radio Okapi: The Making of a “Congolese Voice”
    1. 7.1 Creation of Radio Okapi: The IGO/NGO Mix
    2. 7.2 Mandate and Funding7.3 Challenges
    3. 7.4 Sustainability
    4. 7.5 News and Information Programmes
  15. 8 Information Operations: Contents and Metrics of Effectiveness
    1. 8.1 Between Dialogue and Gutahuka: Streamlining the Debates
    2. 8.2 Ethical Foundations of Hirondelle Foundation’s Approach
    3. 8.3 Conceptualizing Hirondelle Foundation’s “Informative Approach” in Conflict Zones
    4. 8.4 MONUC’s Approach to DDRRR
    5. 8.5 Gutahuka Soft Follow-up Actions
    6. 8.6 Research Impacts of Communication Interventions
    7. 8.7 Ontological Foundations of Public Information Research Design
    8. 8.8 Sampling Design
    9. 8.9 Sampling Groups
    10. 8.10 Summary of Procedure
    11. 8.11 Ethical Considerations
    12. 8.12 Networks and Contexts of Research: Defining the Mixes
    13. 8.13 Order of Focus Group Discussion and Moderator Guide
    14. 8.14 Specific Topics for Discussion
  16. 9 Local Meanings and Perceptions of UN Information Interventions Programmes
    1. 9.1 Radio Listening in South Kivu
    2. 9.2 Re-Stating Purpose of Research
    3. 9.3 Purpose as per Ethnic and Listening Groups
    4. 9.4 Focus Group Participants
    5. 9.5 Focus Group Design
    6. 9.6 Focus Group Plan and Organization
    7. 9.7 Question Design
    8. 9.8 Framework for Data Analysis
    9. 9.9 Analysis of Focus Group Discussions
  17. 10 No Intention to Return to Rwanda
    1. 10.1 Defining Determinants of Planned Behaviour
    2. 10.2 Hutu Participants’ Attitude towards Repatriation to Rwanda
    3. 10.3 Emerging Issues
  18. 11 Impacts of Dialogue Entre Congolais
    1. 11.1 Topical Issues Treated in Dialogue
    2. 11.2 Discussion of Dialogue Listeners’ Perceptions of Descriptive Transformations
    3. 11.3 Process of Perception Change in Dialogue Groups
  19. 12 “Hutus are the ones that have kept us where we are today”: When Psyops Backfire
    1. 12.1 Contending Realities in Narrative Frameworks of Dialogue and Gutahuka
  20. 13 Revisiting Unfinished Debates on Information Intervention
    1. 13.1 Final Word
    2. 13.2 End Note: Reflections of an Outsider Researcher
  21. Appendix 1
  22. Appendix 2
  23. Bibliography
  24. Endnotes