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Corrosion Control for Offshore Structures

Book Description

A variable game changer for those companies operating in hostile, corrosive marine environments, Corrosion Control for Offshore Structures provides critical corrosion control tips and techniques that will prolong structural life while saving millions in cost. In this book, Ramesh Singh explains the ABCs of prolonging structural life of platforms and pipelines while reducing cost and decreasing the risk of failure. Corrosion Control for Offshore Structures places major emphasis on the popular use of cathodic protection (CP) combined with high efficiency coating to prevent subsea corrosion. This reference begins with the fundamental science of corrosion and structures and then moves on to cover more advanced topics such as cathodic protection, coating as corrosion prevention using mill applied coatings, field applications, and the advantages and limitations of some common coating systems. In addition, the author provides expert insight on a number of NACE and DNV standards and recommended practices as well as ISO and Standard and Test Methods. Packed with tables, charts and case studies, Corrosion Control for Offshore Structures is a valuable guide to offshore corrosion control both in terms of its theory and application.

  • Prolong the structural life of your offshore platforms and pipelines
  • Understand critical topics such as cathodic protection and coating as corrosion prevention with mill applied coatings
  • Gain expert insight on a number of NACE and DNV standards and recommended practices as well as ISO and Standard Test Methods.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Acknowledgment
  7. About the author
  8. Preface
  9. Section 1: Basics Concept of Corrosion
    1. Chapter One: Need for the Study of Corrosion
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Cost of Corrosion
    2. Chapter Two: Corrosion Principles and Types of Corrosion
      1. Abstract
      2. Flow of Energy
      3. Measuring the Difference of Energy Levels for Detection of Corrosion Cells
      4. Electrochemical Mechanism of Corrosion
      5. Galvanic Cell, Anode, and Cathode
      6. Cations and Anions
      7. Types of Corrosion
      8. Area Effect in Galvanic Corrosion
    3. Chapter Three: Corrosion Control and Monitoring
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Internal Corrosion
      4. Measurement and Monitoring of Internal Corrosion
      5. Basic Internal Corrosion Monitoring Techniques
      6. Internal Corrosion Monitoring During Pigging Operations
      7. External Corrosion
  10. Section 2: Anode Materials and Testing
    1. Chapter Four: Anode Materials
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Anode Materials
      4. Anode Manufacturing
      5. Steel Inserts
      6. Connections to the Anode
    2. Chapter Five: Anode Testing and Quality Control
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Sampling and Testing
      4. The Test Analysis and the Test Result
  11. Section 3: Cathodic Protection of Offshore Structures
    1. Chapter Six: Offshore Structures
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Cathodic Protection of Fixed Offshore Structures
      4. Atmospheric Zone
      5. Splash Zone
      6. Submerged Zone
      7. Criteria for CP
      8. Designing a CP System
      9. Total Protective Current Required
      10. Initial or Polarization Current
      11. Mean or Maintenance Current
      12. Final Current
      13. Factors to Be Considered for Current Calculations
      14. Design Calculations
      15. Surface Area Calculation
      16. Initial Current Density
      17. Maintenance (Mean) and Final Current Densities
      18. Current Demand Calculation
      19. Current Drain Calculation
      20. Type of Anode Selection
    2. Chapter Seven: Cathodic Protection of Offshore Pipeline Risers and Associated Equipment
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Pipeline Survey and Inspection
      4. Types of CP System
      5. Galvanic or Sacrificial Anode CP System
      6. Impressed Current System
      7. Objectives of the CP System
      8. Factors to Consider When Designing CP Systems for Pipelines
      9. Collecting Design Data
      10. Designing CP Systems for Offshore Pipelines in Relatively Shallow Water
      11. External Corrosion Control of Deep Water Offshore Pipelines
      12. Determining the Surface Area to be Protected
      13. Determining the Current Demand
      14. Selection of Anode Type
      15. Anode Mass Calculation
      16. Calculation of Number of Anodes Required
      17. Checking for the Validation of CP Design
      18. Attenuation of Protection
      19. SCR Cathodic Protection Sample Calculations
      20. Flowline Cathodic Protection Sample Calculations
  12. Section 4: Coating and High-Efficiency Coating Systems
    1. Chapter Eight: Coating for Corrosion Prevention
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Historical Use of Coatings to Protect Materials
      4. Definition of Paint
      5. Definition of Coating
      6. Corrosion Protection Measures
      7. Organic Coating
      8. Anodic Blisters
      9. Cathodic Blistering and Disbonding
      10. Enamel Coating
      11. Metallic Coatings
      12. Thermal Spray Aluminum Coatings
    2. Chapter Nine: High-Efficiency Coating and Cathodic Protection
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Pipeline External Coatings
      4. Coating Materials, Surface Preparation, and Application
      5. Internal Corrosion Protection
      6. Temporary Protection from Corrosion
      7. Coatings for Risers
      8. What is a Splash Zone?
      9. Coating Materials, Surface Preparation, and Application
      10. Surface Preparation for the Coating
      11. Protection of Splash Zone of Offshore Fixed Structures
      12. High-Build Organic Coatings
      13. Heat-Shrink Sleeves
      14. High-Performance Coatings
      15. Thermally Sprayed Aluminum Coating
      16. Field-Joint Coatings
      17. Coating Materials, Surface Preparation, and Application
      18. Surface Preparation for FJC
      19. Concrete Weight Coating
      20. Concrete Materials and Coating Manufacturing
    3. Chapter Ten: Testing of High-Efficiency Coating Materials and Their Efficiency
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Product Tests
      4. Sample Preparation for Coating Glass Transition Temperature Measurement
      5. Evaluation of Glass Transition Temperature Results
      6. Testing for the Gel Time of Epoxy Powder
      7. The Test Procedure
      8. Total Volatile/Moisture Content of the Epoxy Powder
      9. Ultraviolet and Thermal Aging Test
      10. Test Procedure
      11. Density of Epoxy Powder
      12. Production Tests
      13. Holiday Test
      14. Peel Strength Test
      15. Impact Test
      16. Hot Water Immersion Test
      17. Indentation Test
      18. Cathodic Disbondment Test
      19. Flexibility Test
  13. Section 5: Maintenance of CP System and Retrofitting to Continue Cathodic Protection
    1. Chapter Eleven: Introduction to Retrofitting
      1. Abstract
      2. Economics of Retrofit
    2. Chapter Twelve: Corrosion Control for Existing Offshore Pipelines
      1. Abstract
      2. Aging Offshore Pipelines
      3. Cathodic Protection Design for Offshore Structures
      4. Pipelines
    3. Chapter Thirteen: Corrosion and CP System Assessment Methods
      1. Abstract
      2. Existing Pipeline Cathodic Protection System Analysis Methods
    4. Chapter Fourteen: New Approach to Cathodic Protection Design for New Pipelines
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Sample Calculations
    5. Chapter Fifteen: Attenuation Modeling for Offshore Pipelines
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Equations, Terms, and Expressions
      4. Critical Issues with the Retrofits
      5. Anode Battery Design
      6. Appendix to Section 5
  14. Section 6: International Bodies that Address Corrosion, Their Specifications, and an Explanation of Symbols, Constants, and Indices
    1. Chapter Sixteen: International Bodies that Address Corrosion
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. National Association of Corrosion Engineers International
      4. International Organization for Standardization
      5. Det Norske Veritas
      6. NORSOK
      7. American Society for Testing Materials
      8. Canadian Standards Association
    2. Chapter Seventeen: Commonly Used Constants, Quantities, and Symbols
      1. Abstract
      2. Symbols
      3. Greek Symbols
      4. American Wire Sizes
  15. Appendix: Reading List and Bibliography for Cathodic Protection, High Efficiency Coating, and Corrosion Control
    1. Introduction
    2. Bibliography and Additional Recommended Reading
    3. Specifications
    4. Additional List of Reading on Retrofitting
  16. Index