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Cost-Effective Energy Efficient Building Retrofitting

Book Description

Cost-Effective Energy Efficient Building Retrofitting:Materials, Technologies, Optimization and Case Studies provides essential knowledge for civil engineers, architects, and other professionals working in the field of cost-effective energy efficient building retrofitting.

The building sector is responsible for high energy consumption and its global demand is expected to grow as each day there are approximately 200,000 new inhabitants on planet Earth. The majority of electric energy will continue to be generated from the combustion of fossil fuels releasing not only carbon dioxide, but also methane and nitrous oxide. Energy efficiency measures are therefore crucial to reduce greenhouse gas emissions of the building sector.

Energy efficient building retrofitting needs to not only be technically feasible, but also economically viable. New building materials and advanced technologies already exist, but the knowledge to integrate all active components is still scarce and far from being widespread among building industry stakeholders.

  • Emphasizes cost-effective methods for the refurbishment of existing buildings, presenting state-of-the-art technologies
  • Includes detailed case studies that explain various methods and Net Zero Energy
  • Explains optimal analysis and prioritization of cost effective strategies

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. List of Contributors
  6. Foreword
  7. Chapter 1. Introduction to Cost-Effective Energy-Efficient Building Retrofitting
    1. Abstract
    2. 1.1 Sustainable Development and Energy Production
    3. 1.2 Building Energy Efficiency and Energy Retrofitting
    4. 1.3 Financing Aspects Regarding Energy Retrofitting in Europe
    5. 1.4 The Importance of Socioeconomic Aspects
    6. 1.5 Outline of the Book
    7. References
  8. Part I: Materials and Technologies
    1. Chapter 2. Methodologies for Selection of Thermal Insulation Materials for Cost-Effective, Sustainable, and Energy-Efficient Retrofitting
      1. Abstract
      2. Nomenclature
      3. 2.1 Introduction
      4. 2.2 Thermal Insulation Materials
      5. 2.3 Environmental and Economic Assessment of Thermal Insulation Materials
      6. 2.4 Advancements in the Field of Building Materials Applied for the Energy Upgrade of Buildings
      7. 2.5 Conclusions
      8. References
    2. Chapter 3. Phase Change Materials for Application in Energy-Efficient Buildings
      1. Abstract
      2. 3.1 Introduction
      3. 3.2 Phase Change Materials in General
      4. 3.3 State-of-the-Art Phase Change Materials
      5. 3.4 Phase Change Materials in Building Applications
      6. 3.5 Future Research Opportunities
      7. 3.6 Conclusions
      8. Acknowledgments
      9. References
    3. Chapter 4. Reflective Materials for Cost-Effective Energy-Efficient Retrofitting of Roofs
      1. Abstract
      2. 4.1 Introduction
      3. 4.2 White Reflective Materials
      4. 4.3 Colored Reflective Materials
      5. 4.4 Retroreflective Materials
      6. 4.5 Thermochromic Materials
      7. 4.6 Conclusions
      8. Acknowledgments
      9. References
    4. Chapter 5. Solar Air Collectors for Cost-Effective Energy-Efficient Retrofitting
      1. Abstract
      2. 5.1 Introduction
      3. 5.2 Types of SACS
      4. 5.3 Unglazed SAC Numerical Model
      5. 5.4 Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA)
      6. 5.5 Concluding Remarks
      7. References
    5. Chapter 6. Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) for Cost-Effective Energy-Efficient Retrofitting
      1. Abstract
      2. 6.1 Introduction
      3. 6.2 Cost-Effective Energy Retrofitting and Nearly- and Net-Zero Energy Building Design
      4. 6.3 Photovoltaic Products for Buildings
      5. 6.4 Conclusions: Potentialities and Challenges
      6. References
  9. Part II: Optimization
    1. Chapter 7. Measurement and Verification Models for Cost-Effective Energy-Efficient Retrofitting
      1. Abstract
      2. Nomenclature for Measurement and Verification Terms
      3. 7.1 Introduction
      4. 7.2 Fundamental Principles of Measurement and Verification
      5. 7.3 Measurement and Verification Protocols & Standards
      6. 7.4 Measurement and Verification Options
      7. 7.5 Drivers for and Barriers Against M&V
      8. 7.6 Innovative Methods for Cost-Effective M&V: An Overview
      9. 7.7 Summary
      10. References
    2. Chapter 8. A Cost-Effective Human-Based Energy-Retrofitting Approach
      1. Abstract
      2. 8.1 Introduction
      3. 8.2 Why Should Occupants’ Awareness Play a Key Role in Building Energy Saving?
      4. 8.3 Human–Building System Interaction: Active and Passive Roles of Occupants
      5. 8.4 Typical Occupants’ Attitudes Playing a Key Role in Energy Need
      6. 8.5 Occupants’ Behavior in Building Thermal Energy Dynamic Simulation
      7. 8.6 Occupant Behavior Towards Energy Saving in Buildings
      8. 8.7 Conclusions
      9. References
    3. Chapter 9. An Overview of the Challenges for Cost-Effective and Energy-Efficient Retrofits of the Existing Building Stock
      1. Abstract
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 Challenges in Building Energy Retrofitting
      4. 9.3 Optimization Approaches for the Design of Building Energy Retrofit
      5. 9.4 Building Energy Retrofit and Sustainability
      6. 9.5 Conclusions
      7. Acknowledgment
      8. References
    4. Chapter 10. Smart Heating Systems for Cost-Effective Retrofitting
      1. Abstract
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 Technology
      4. 10.3 Case Studies and Lessons Learned
      5. 10.4 Conclusions
      6. References
    5. Chapter 11. Artificial Neural Networks for Predicting the Energy Behavior of a Building Category: A Powerful Tool for Cost-Optimal Analysis
      1. Abstract
      2. Nomenclature
      3. 11.1 Introduction and Literature Review: Surrogate Models in Building Applications
      4. 11.2 Methodology: Predicting the Energy Behavior of a Building Category by ANNs
      5. 11.3 Application: An Office Case Study
      6. 11.4 Integration of the ANNs in Optimization Procedures to Optimize Energy Retrofit Design
      7. 11.5 Summary of the Main Novelties, Outcomes, and Conclusions
      8. References
  10. Part III: Case Studies
    1. Chapter 12. Cost-Effectiveness of Retrofitting Swedish Buildings
      1. Abstract
      2. Nomenclature
      3. 12.1 The Swedish Building Stock
      4. 12.2 Method
      5. 12.3 Potentials and Costs for Energy Conservation
      6. 12.4 Determinants of Cost Efficiency
      7. 12.5 Conclusions
      8. Appendix
      9. References
    2. Chapter 13. Cost-Efficient Solutions for Finnish Buildings
      1. Abstract
      2. 13.1 Introduction
      3. 13.2 Simulation Study for a Finnish 1960s Apartment Building
      4. 13.3 Practical Renovation Case Study in a Finnish 1980s Apartment Building
      5. 13.4 Economic and Environmental Advantages of a Nearly Zero-Energy Renovation in a Finnish 1970s Apartment Building Compared to Traditional Renovation
      6. 13.5 Conclusions Based on the Presented Case Studies
      7. References
    3. Chapter 14. Cost-Effective District-Level Renovation: A Russian Case Study
      1. Abstract
      2. 14.1 Introduction
      3. 14.2 Analyzed Cases
      4. 14.3 Renovation Costs
      5. 14.4 Discussion and Conclusions
      6. References
    4. Chapter 15. Cost-Effective Energy and Indoor Climate Renovation of Estonian Residential Buildings
      1. Abstract
      2. 15.1 Introduction
      3. 15.2 Methods
      4. 15.3 Results
      5. 15.4 Discussion
      6. References
    5. Chapter 16. Cost-Effective Energy Refurbishment of Prefabricated Buildings in Serbia
      1. Abstract
      2. Nomenclature
      3. 16.1 Introduction: Energy Refurbishment of the Residential Buildings
      4. 16.2 New Belgrade’s Residential Blocks—Global State and Energy Consumption
      5. 16.3 Project Approach and Methodology
      6. 16.4 Current State of the Two Case Study Buildings
      7. 16.5 Simulation Results of the Energy Optimization: Comparative Analysis
      8. 16.6 Integrated Architectural Measures
      9. 16.7 Economic Analysis and Results
      10. 16.8 Conclusion
      11. Acknowledgments
      12. References
    6. Chapter 17. Cost-Effective Refurbishment of Residential Buildings in Austria
      1. Abstract
      2. 17.1 Introduction
      3. 17.2 Building Stock and Refurbishment
      4. 17.3 Cost-Effective Calculation Model
      5. 17.4 Research Sample
      6. 17.5 Sensitivity of the Building and Cost Parameters
      7. 17.6 Findings, Discussion, and Conclusion
      8. References
    7. Chapter 18. Cost-Effective Energy Retrofitting of Buildings in Spain: An Office Building of the University of the Basque Country
      1. Abstract
      2. 18.1 Introduction
      3. 18.2 The Case Study. Building Description
      4. 18.3 Analysis of the Real Energy Performance. Monitoring Study
      5. 18.4 Assessment of Effects of Energy Renovation. Energy Simulations
      6. 18.5 Overall Improvements, Experiences, and Lessons Learned
      7. 18.6 Future Trends
      8. 18.7 Recommendations and Sources of Further Information
      9. Acknowledgments
      10. References
    8. Chapter 19. Cost-Effective Refurbishment of Italian Historic Buildings
      1. Abstract
      2. 19.1 Introduction: The Energy Refurbishment of Historical Building Stock
      3. 19.2 Cost-Effective EEMs, Suitable for Buildings Protected as Cultural Goods
      4. 19.3 Presentation of the Case Studies
      5. 19.4 Modeling and Investigation: Discussion and Results
      6. 19.5 Conclusions and Future Trends
      7. Acknowledgments
      8. References
  11. Index