IMAGINE THAT you are the director of a large cancer society. Your day-to-day duties require you to conduct some research and oversee employees whose job is to compile data and make health recommendations. One morning you sit down with a cup of coffee and toast, and when you open the morning paper, you find that one of your society's recommendations—that women between the ages of forty and sixty receive screening mammography for breast cancer—has made the headline news: an elderly-rights group is suing your society. This group argues that your recommendation unfairly discriminates against the elderly because you have implied that women over the age of sixty should not be screened for breast ...

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