vii
Contents
List of Figures ..................................................................................... xiii
Preface ...................................................................................................xv
Acknowledgments ...............................................................................xix
Introduction .........................................................................................xxi
Author ............................................................................................... xxiii
Chapter 1 Seeing and Removing Barriers in the R&D
Environment .......................................................................1
Mental Models .............................................................................2
Removing Barriers to Innovation .............................................5
Impact on R&D Innovation .......................................................6
Physical Barriers .....................................................................8
Emotional Barriers ...............................................................10
Observational and inking Barriers ................................11
Lean and the Removal of Barriers...........................................13
Chapter 2 Lean in Research and Development ................................ 15
Purpose .......................................................................................16
Continuous Improvement in Manufacturing and R&D......18
e Purpose of Lean .................................................................19
What Lean Is ............................................................................. 20
Lean R&D ...................................................................................22
Implications ................................................................................23
Connection with People ...........................................................23
Conclusions ................................................................................25
Chapter 3 The Individual in the Lean R&D Community ............... 27
e Individual/Community Continuum in R&D ............... 28
An Example of the Lean R&D Community .................... 28
Qualities of the Individual in a Lean Environment ............ 30
Commitment ........................................................................ 30
viii • Contents
Commitment to Cra .....................................................31
Commitment to the Team ..............................................33
Awareness of the Community ........................................... 34
Skill at Learning .................................................................... 37
Pulling It Together ....................................................................41
Chapter 4 Lean Exercises for the R&D Professional ....................... 43
Seeing ......................................................................................... 43
Skill-Building Exercise 1: Seeing without Prior
Mental Context .................................................................... 46
Skill-Building Exercise 2: Seeing Beliefs ...........................49
Reframing to Innovate ..............................................................50
Deconstruction and Synthesis to Increase Value
Content ................................................................................... 51
Making Snowmobiles ...........................................................51
e Role of Language in Reframing for Innovation ........53
Skill-Building Exercise 3: Reframing by Converting
Statements into Questions .................................................. 56
Skill-Building Exercise 4: Seeing and Reframing
through Value Stream Mapping ........................................ 56
Skill-Building Exercise 5: Reframing by Making
Snowmobiles ..........................................................................57
e Value of Experience in Innovation ..................................59
Skill-Building Exercise 6: Improving Innovation
Experience through Daily Experimental Practice ...........61
Growing Yourself and Your Environment ............................. 61
Practice to Grow ...................................................................63
Pulling It Together—Seeing, Reframing, Experiencing,
and Growing: A Learning Loop for Innovation ...................63
Integrated Exercises ..................................................................65
Skill-Building Exercise 7: e A3 Format .........................65
Skill-Building Exercise 8: Good-Better-Best .................... 66
Skill-Building Exercise 9: Mapping ................................... 66
Apply Liberally ......................................................................67
Apply in Your Work, Start Small, Grow in Scale,
and Spread Outward ........................................................... 68
Contents • ix
Chapter 5 The A3 in Developing R&D Thinking ...........................71
Description of the A3 ................................................................ 71
Purpose of the A3 ......................................................................73
Section 1: Problem Statement, Business Value,
Performance Goals—Dening the Problem and the
Terms for Its Successful Resolution ........................................74
e First Step in Creating ought Clarity—
Separating Problem and Solution with a Well-
Constructed Problem Statement or Valuable
Question ..........................................................................74
Business Value—Creating a Stage for Buy-In ...................77
Goals—Dening Criteria for Successful
Completion, a.k.a. “When Do I Stop? ..............................78
Other Types of Stop-Gap Goals ..........................................79
Section 1 Summary ............................................................. 80
Section 2: Current State ............................................................81
Section 2 Summary ..............................................................83
Section 3: Analysis/Synthesis—Finding the Root Cause
of a Problem and Developing Countermeasures to
Address Root Cause ................................................................. 84
Considerations in Analysis/Synthesis ............................... 86
Section 3 Summary ..............................................................89
Section 4: e Learning Plan ...................................................89
Learning Plan Structure ..................................................... 90
Predicting Plan Timing .......................................................92
Building Fast Learning into Our Planning Process ........92
inking and Cadence in the Learning Plan ...................93
oughts on the Learning Plan ..........................................95
Section 4 Summary ..............................................................98
Section 5: Results and Future Considerations .......................98
Pulling It Together to Get the Most from the A3 ................ 99
Chapter 6 The Lean R&D Manager ................................................ 101
Skills a Lean Manager Must Possess .....................................102
Seeing Exercises .......................................................................102
Skill-Building Exercise 1: Seeing Group and System
Dynamics in an External Setting .....................................103
x • Contents
Skill-Building Exercise 2: Letting the Environment
Tell You Its Problems .......................................................... 103
Skill-Building Exercise 3: Observing the Internal
Environment (Walking the Gemba) ................................105
Skill-Building Exercise 4: Seeing and Reframing
through Mapping ................................................................107
Reframing Exercises ................................................................108
Skill-Building Exercise 5: Disbelieving Your Own
Beliefs ...................................................................................109
Skill-Building Exercise 6: Identifying Other Possible
Beliefs ...................................................................................109
Experience ................................................................................110
Skill-Building Exercise 7: Small-Scale/High-Velocity
Experimentation .................................................................110
Growth ......................................................................................112
Skill-Building Exercise 8: Setting Targets .......................113
Skill-Building Exercise 9: Assessing Performance
and Reecting on Results ..................................................114
Pulling It Together ..................................................................114
Chapter 7 Removing Barriers within the R&D Community ........ 115
Noninnovation Work ..............................................................116
Supporting Basic Work Requirements ............................116
Supporting Interfaces .........................................................116
Supporting Management Systems .................................... 117
Seeing the Noninnovation Work ..................................... 120
Creating Purpose ............................................................... 120
Seeing without Prejudice ....................................................... 122
Group Exercise 1: Seeing without Prejudice, the
Current-State Value Stream Map .................................... 122
Issues in Value Stream Mapping in R&D .................. 124
Group Exercise 2: Seeing Team Assumptions ................125
Group Exercise 3: Bypass Assumptions Entirely
Critical Question Mapping .............................................. 126
Reframing Exercises ................................................................127
Building Group Experience ...................................................129
Pulling It Together to Remove Barriers................................130

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