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Creating Wine

Book Description

Today's wine industry is characterized by regional differences not only in the wines themselves but also in the business models by which these wines are produced, marketed, and distributed. In Old World countries such as France, Spain, and Italy, small family vineyards and cooperative wineries abound. In New World regions like the United States and Australia, the industry is dominated by a handful of very large producers. This is the first book to trace the economic and historical forces that gave rise to very distinctive regional approaches to creating wine.

James Simpson shows how the wine industry was transformed in the decades leading up to the First World War. Population growth, rising wages, and the railways all contributed to soaring European consumption even as many vineyards were decimated by the vine disease phylloxera. At the same time, new technologies led to a major shift in production away from Europe's traditional winemaking regions. Small family producers in Europe developed institutions such as regional appellations and cooperatives to protect their commercial interests as large integrated companies built new markets in America and elsewhere. Simpson examines how Old and New World producers employed diverging strategies to adapt to the changing global wine industry.

Creating Wine includes chapters on Europe's cheap commodity wine industry; the markets for sherry, port, claret, and champagne; and the new wine industries in California, Australia, and Argentina.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half title
  3. Title
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Contents
  7. List of Illustrations
  8. List of Tables
  9. Acknowledgments
  10. Maps
  11. Introduction
  12. Weights, Measures, and Currencies
  13. Acronyms and Abbreviations
  14. Part I: Technological and Organizational Change in Europe, 1840–1914
    1. Chapter 1 European Wine on the Eve of the Railways
      1. What Is Wine?
      2. Family Producers
      3. The Production of Grapes prior to Phylloxera
      4. Traditional Wine-Making Technologies
      5. Markets, Institutions, and Wine Consumption
      6. The Development of Fine Export Wines
    2. Chapter 2 Phylloxera and the Development of Scientific Viti-Viniculture
      1. The Growth in Wine Consumption in Producer Countries
      2. Phylloxera and the Destruction of Europe’s Vines
      3. Phylloxera and the International Response in Spain and Italy
      4. Wine Making, Economies of Scale and the Spread of Viticulture to Hot Climates
      5. La Viticulture Industrielle and Vertical Integration: Wine Production in the Midi
    3. Chapter 3 Surviving Success in the Midi: Growers, Merchants, and the State
      1. Phylloxera and Wine Adulteration
      2. Politics, Phylloxera, and the Vineyard during France’s Third Republic
      3. The Midi: From Shortage to Overproduction
      4. From Informal to Formal Cooperation: La Cave Coopérative Vinicole
  15. Part II: The Causes of Export Failure
    1. Chapter 4 Selling to Reluctant Drinkers: The British Market and the International Wine Trade
      1. The Political Economy of the Wine Trade in Britain prior to 1860
      2. Gladstone and the Rise and Decline in Consumption in the Late Nineteenth Century
      3. The Retail Market and Product Adulteration
      4. Who Controls the Chain? Experiments at “Buyer-Led” Commodity Chains
  16. Part III: Institutional Innovation: Regional Appellations
    1. Chapter 5 Bordeaux
      1. Claret, Trade, and the Organization of Production
      2. The 1855 Classification and the Branding of Claret
      3. Supply Volatility, Vine Disease, and the Decline in Reputation of Fine Claret
      4. Response to Overproduction: A Regional Appellation
    2. Chapter 6 Champagne
      1. The Myth of Dom Pérignon and the Development of Champagne
      2. Economies of Scale, Brands, and Marketing
      3. The Response to Phylloxera
      4. Organization of a Regional Appellation
    3. Chapter 7 Port
      1. Port and the British Market
      2. Product Development and the Demands of a Mass Market
      3. Rent Seeking, Fraud, and Regional Appellations
    4. Chapter 8 From Sherry to Spanish White
      1. The Organization of Wine Production in Jerez
      2. Sherry and the British Market
      3. Product Innovation and Cost Control
      4. Wine Quality and the Demand for a Regional Appellation
  17. Part IV: The Great Divergence: The Growth of Industrial Wine Production in the New World
    1. Chapter 9 Big Business and American Wine: The California Wine Association
      1. Creating Vineyards and Wineries in a Labor-Scarce Economy
      2. Production Instability and the Creation of the California Wine Association
      3. The California Wine Association and the Market for California’s Wines
    2. Chapter 10 Australia: The Tyranny of Distance and Domestic Beer Drinkers
      1. Learning Grape Growing and Wine Making
      2. Organization of Wine Production
      3. In Search of Markets
    3. Chapter 11 Argentina: New World Producers and Old World Consumers
      1. Establishing the Industry
      2. Redefining the Industry
      3. The Limits to Growth and the Return to Crisis
  18. Conclusion
    1. Old World Producers and Consumers
    2. New World Producers and Consumers
    3. The Wine Industry in the Twentieth Century
  19. Appendix 1 Vineyards and Wineries
    1. A.1. Area of Vines and Output per Winery in France, 1924 and 1934
    2. A.2 Number of Growers and Area of Vines by County, California, 1891
    3. A.3. Winery Size in the Midi and Algeria, 1903
  20. Appendix 2 Wine Prices
    1. A.4. Farm and Paris Wine Prices, July 1910
    2. A.5. Price List, Berry Brothers, London, 1909
  21. Glossary
  22. Bibliography
  23. Index