Aspects of teaching and learning*
Introduction: images of the learner and reflections on the teacher
Teaching is a complex, difficult and often subtle activity. Although I will be arguing that a great deal of teaching is spontaneous, ‘natural’ and effective, deliberate teaching of groups of children in formally contrived contexts is an intellectually demanding occupation. It is also a relatively new one. Compulsory formal education for all has a short history, and the technologies and consequences it has spawned, both material and mental, are still poorly understood and the subject of political and academic debate.
Some years ago, Greenfield and Bruner (1969) argued that the invention and widespread availability of schooling ...