The exact origin of the term customer journey map (CJM) is unclear. The basic idea of looking across touchpoints seems to have its roots in Jan Carlzon’s concept of moments of truth (see his book Moments of Truth for more). Carlzon advocated an ecological view of the customer experience, but he never explicitly talked about a map of the customer journey as such.
It wasn’t until the field of customer experience management came into focus just before the turn of the century that journey mapping emerged. For instance, in a seminal article appearing in Marketing Management in 1994, authors Lewis Carbone and Stephan Haeckel speak of an experience blueprint, which they define as “a pictorial representation of the experience clues to be engineered, along with specification that describes them and their individual functions.”
In 2002, customer experience expert Colin Shaw introduced the concept of what he calls moment mapping—recalling Carlzon. The resulting diagram (Figure 1-1) uses an arrow to map the phases of the customer experience.
From this, analysis opportunities for creating a positive customer experience can be derived, shown in Figure 1-2.