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Cyber Warfare, 2nd Edition by Steve Winterfeld, Jason Andress

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Chapter 12

Non-State Actors in Computer Network Operations

Abstract

In warfare—cyber or otherwise—nation states have the advantage of being on the proper legal and ethical side of things, and the potential advantage of having greater access to resources and materials. However, they have the distinct disadvantage of being bound by rules and morals, and are greatly restricted in their actions. Non-state actors take part in cyber warfare, but are not directly part of a nation state. Non-state actors can include script kiddies, scammers, hacktivists, blackhat hackers, criminal organizations, and other individuals or terrorist groups. This chapter focuses on non-state actors—those involved in cyber warfare on an individual or small-group scale ...

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