The world has become digital, and technological advances have increased the number of different ways for accessing, processing, and distributing data. New technologies are now reaching a certain maturity.

Today, data comes from all sides: geolocation sensors, smartphones, social networks where we share files, videos, photos, etc., Internet shopping transactions by customers, banking transactions through credit cards and so on. In France, out of 65 million people, 83% are Internet users; 42% are registered on Facebook, or 28 million members. More than 72 million phones are activated, and the French spend on average more than 4 hours a day surfing the Internet. French mobile users spend 58 minutes or more there; 68% of the population is registered on social networks. French people spend more than 1 hour and 30 minutes a day on social networks. The development of these masses of data and their access represents what is called “Big Data”. These immaterial data arrive continuously; their processing poses problems, particularly in knowledge extraction. Thus, new methods of automatic information extraction are implemented: for example, “data mining” or “text mining”. They underlie profound changes that affect the economy, marketing, research and even politics. The amount of data will increase sharply with the arrival on the market of connected objects that will gradually come into use. Elements of our daily life are already connected: the car, the television and some household ...

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