Appendix D: Semantics of “innovation,” “data-driven,” “AI,” and “growth”


“Innovation” comes from the Latin innovationem, a noun of action that comes from innovare. The Etymology Dictionary states that innovare dates back to at least around year 1500 and stems from the Latin innovatus, a past participle of innovare – to renew or change” – from in- “into” and novus “new.” The central meaning of innovation relates to renewal. Despite the etymological and intuitive meaning, we find more than 40 definitions in the literature.

Innovation is the opposite of exnovation, which implies a stoppage of renewal. This makes sense if there is the desire to standardize things (e.g., for scaling purposes).

There are a number of different types ...

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