In this major section of the chapter, we will introduce data types and structure and how to convert one type to another with very simple functions.
Whatever we do in R, is stored as objects. An R object is anything that can be assigned to a variable of interest. This could be a single number or a set of numbers, characters, and special characters, for example, TRUE, FALSE, NA, NaN, and Inf. Also, these can be already defined in R as functions, such as seq (to generate a sequence of numbers with a specified increment), names (to extract names such as variable names from a dataset),
row.names (to extract the row names of the data, if any), or
col.names (this is equivalent to names, and ...