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CHAPTER 5

5.1 The join of a single relation, JOIN{r}, is just r; the join of no relations at all, JOIN{}, is TABLE_DEE (the only relation of degree zero and cardinality one). For further explanation, see SQL and Relational Theory.

5.2 See the body of the chapter.

5.3 FDs c. and d. (only) are trivial. All eight FDs a.- h. are satisfied by the current value of relvar S. All but h. hold in relvar S. FDs a., c., e., and g. are irreducible with respect to relvar S; FDs b., d., and f. are reducible. (As for h., the question of irreducibility doesn’t arise, since that FD doesn’t hold in the relvar. Check the definition of FD irreducibility if you don’t immediately grasp this point.)

5.4 Heath’s Theorem (original version) says that if (a) relation r has heading H, (b) X, Y, and Z are subsets of H whose union is equal to H, and (c) r satisfies the FD XY, then (d) r is equal to the join of its projections on XY and XZ (where XY denotes the union of X and Y, and similarly for XZ). In what follows, I show the proof of this theorem in exhaustive detail. Note: The expression “tr” can be read as “tuple t appears in relation r.”

First of all, consider the simplest possible case, in which X, Y, and Z are singleton sets (i.e., contain just one attribute each). Let the attributes in question be A, B, and C, respectively. Now, we know from the answer to Exercise 3.2 that no tuple of r is lost by taking the projections r1 over XY (= {A,B}) and r2 over XZ (= {A,C}), respectively, and then joining ...

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