Fair trade and beyond: voluntary standards and sustainable supply chains
G. Alvarez, Cranfield University, UK
Over the last decade, a plethora of voluntary initiatives and standards have emerged as a response to increasing awareness of the social and environmental implications of modern production and trading systems. Within these initiatives sustainability issues have been particularly relevant to manufacturers and retailers who trade on their brand image as providers of safe environmental and ethically produced goods. Initiatives like Fairtrade GLOBAL GAP and Rainforest Alliance are examples of a broad range of voluntary standards covering a wide scope of requirements that include quality and hygiene working conditions ...