Chapter 8Membrane Distillation: Now and Future

Xing Yang*1, Anthony G. Fane2 and Rong Wang3,4

1Institute for Sustainability and Innovation, College of Engineering and Science, Victoria University, P.O. Box 14428, Melbourne, Victoria 8001, Australia

2UNESCO Centre for Membrane Science & Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, University of New South Wales

3School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798

4Singapore Membrane Technology Centre, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798

*Corresponding author:


This chapter provides a comprehensive introduction to the state-of-the-art of Membrane Distillation, including basic theoretical principles, system design configurations, technical advancements, limitations, and future prospects for desalination and resource recovery. Focus will be on the historical perspectives of MD, process engineering aspects including membrane characteristics, module design, applications and cost evaluation. The technical requirements together with the benefits and limitations will also be addressed in terms of economic consideration and process engineering. It is expected to provide future prospects to implement the MD process industrialization as a promising technique for desalination and resource recovery.

Keywords: Membrane Distillation, Desalination, Resource Recovery, Mass and Heat Transfer, Low-Grade Energy, Process Engineering, Productivity Cost

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