This chapter provides a comprehensive introduction to the state-of-the-art of Membrane Distillation, including basic theoretical principles, system design configurations, technical advancements, limitations, and future prospects for desalination and resource recovery. Focus will be on the historical perspectives of MD, process engineering aspects including membrane characteristics, module design, applications and cost evaluation. The technical requirements together with the benefits and limitations will also be addressed in terms of economic consideration and process engineering. It is expected to provide future prospects to implement the MD process industrialization as a promising technique for desalination and resource recovery.
Keywords: Membrane Distillation, Desalination, Resource Recovery, Mass and Heat Transfer, Low-Grade Energy, Process Engineering, Productivity Cost