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Design of CMOS Millimeter-Wave and Terahertz Integrated Circuits with Metamaterials by Yang Shang, Hao Yu

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Oscillator 103
Figure 4.33: Measured output power across the entire frequency tun-
ing range.
Table 4.11: Perfo rmance Summary and Comparison
Parameters [139] [140] [134] This Work Unit
f
osc
95.7 101 70.4 89.3 GHz
VDD
core
1.5 0.8 1.2 1 V
P
DC
9 11.9 5.4 14 mW
Phase Noise
(PN ) @10MHz
-106 -104.5 -106.1 -100.8 dBc/Hz
FTR (%) 3.6 11.2 9 29.6 %
FOM -176.1 -173.8 -175.7 -168.4 dBc/Hz
FOM
T
-167.2 -174.8 -174.8 -177.8 dBc/Hz
Tech. CMOS 65 CMOS 65 SOI CMOS 65 CMOS 65 nm
4.5 Conclusion
This chapter studies techniques to achieve a wide frequency tuning range
for CMOS VCO at mm-wave freq ue nc ies. More specifically, a ne w inductive
tuning by inductor-loaded transformer is proposed in this chapter to design
a wide frequency tuning range (FTR) VCO for all sub-bands at 60 GHz.
Different from previously published inductive tuning methods , by configur-
ing different cur rent return-paths in the secondary coil of one transformer,
wide multi-sub-band tuning can be achieved within a compact area with only
one transformer. With the use of the pro posed new inductive tuning method,
two VCO topologies are realized in 65-nm CMOS with design targets for the
maximum FTR and the balanced performance (FTR and phase noise), respec-
tively. Measurement results show that the first VCO achieves a FTR of 25.8%
from 51.9 to 67.3 GHz, and a 10 -MHz-offset phase noise varied from -90.2 to
-106.7 dBc/Hz across a ll sub-bands; and the second VCO achieves a FTR of
14.2% from 57.0 GHz to 65 .5 GHz, and a 10-MHz-offset pha se noise varied
from -105.9 to -110.8 dBc/Hz across all sub-bands. The demonstrated VCOs
have shown great p otential for integration in 60-GHz transceiver design with
wide-tuning ability.
104 Design of CMOS Millimeter-Wave and Terahertz Integrated Circuits
The inductive tuning method is further a pplied to realize a tunable CRLH
T-line for Mobius-ring RTW-VCO design in mm-wave region. Inductor-loaded
transformer is implemented in CRLH T-line to realize 4 sub-bands. Each sub-
band is covered by a varac tor with fine-tuning. The proposed tunable CRLH
T-line-based RTW-VCO is fabricated in 65nm GF RF-CMOS technology with
a wide FTR of 75 .7–102 GHz and area of 0.0821 mm
2
. The measur ed results
show a current consumption of 14mA under supply voltage of 1 V, a FTR of
29.5% with center frequency at 89.3GHz, and a phase noise of -100 .8 dBc/Hz
with 10-MHz offset at 82.2 GHz frequency. The state-of-the-art figure-of-merit
FOM
T
is demonstrated at -177.8 dBc/Hz.

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