Losses and Heat Transfer
Heat transfer always occurs when there is a temperature difference in a system. The temperature difference evens out naturally as heat transfers from the higher temperature to the lower according to the second law of thermodynamics.
In electrical machines, the design of heat transfer is of equal importance as the electromagnetic design of the machine, because the temperature rise of the machine eventually determines the maximum output power with which the machine is allowed to be constantly loaded. As a matter of fact, accurate management of heat and fluid transfer in an electrical machine is a more difficult and complicated issue than the conventional electromagnetic design of an electrical machine. However, as shown previously in this material, problems related to heat transfer can to some degree be avoided by utilizing empirical knowledge of the machine constants available. When creating completely new constructions, empirical knowledge is not enough, and thorough modeling of the heat transfer is required. Finally, prototyping and measurements verify the successfulness of the design.
The problem of temperature rise is twofold: first, in most motors, adequate heat removal is ensured by convection in air, conduction through the fastening surfaces of the machine and radiation to ambient. In machines with a high power density, direct cooling methods can also be applied. Sometimes even the winding of the machine is made of copper pipe, through which the ...