3. Research Programs
What makes constructive research successful? A good deal of the answer lies in the fact that it is programmatic. Researchers build on previous work and raise new questions; successful programs are able to generate new research questions. While they maintain their inner core, they are able to respond to many types of themes emerging from technology and society. These programs are, in the words of the scholar of science Helga Nowotny, socially robust, exploring social implications of technology rather than trying to create applications or just producing knowledge. Constructive design research is a science of imagination: it imagines possible futures and constructs them in order to study them in detail. Successful programs create ...

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