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Developing International EFL/ESL Scholarly Writers

Book Description

This study had a research purpose and a pedagogical purpose. Research disclosed the dynamic, changing nature of (learner-internal and learner-external) variables that influence strategic competence for developing EFL/ESL writers. This competence was found necessary for international graduate students to move from writer-centered learning to reader-centered communication. The research instruments proved to be practical tools for guiding learners' processes of learning and writing a scholarly paper or article and avoiding plagiarism. The implication for teachers and program administrators is a systematic approach for developing self-regulation (control) in EFL/ESL writing. The first part of the book reports on the mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative) research. The second part gives an in-depth report of the 6 cases used in the research. The third part presents tools for systematically developing self-regulation in scholarly (and academic) writing with (a) student and teacher checklists for formative assessment that are valid and reliable; and (b) a model syllabus for teachers that can be adapted across disciplines and genres. These tools deal with learning strategies and their applications to writing and writing instruction.

Table of Contents

  1. Donna Bain Butler Developing International EFL/ESL Scholarly Writers
  2. Studies in Second and Foreign Language Eduction
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Dedication
  6. Foreword
  7. Preface
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. Table of Contents
  10. Part I: Combining Research with Instruction
    1. 1 Making a Difference in the Academic Writing of International Graduate Students
      1. 1.1 Why this topic matters
      2. 1.2 Learner-centered research and pedagogy
      3. 1.3 How this book is organized
    2. 2 What We Know About Academic Writer Challenges and Differences
      1. 2.1 Empirical research and institutional knowledge
      2. 2.2 Challenges of international graduate students in U.S. law schools
      3. 2.3 Concerns of EFL/ESL academic legal writers in this research
      4. 2.4 International legal studies context
      5. 2.5 Academic legal writing instructional context
      6. 2.6 Variability in EFL/ESL graduate student writer sampling
    3. 3 Determining What International Student Writers Know and Can Do
      1. 3.1 Self-report instrument describing strategic competence
        1. 3.1.1 Stages for writing
        2. 3.1.2 Strategies for language learning and language zuse
        3. 3.1.3 Skills for language use and strategies for language re-use
        4. 3.1.4 Strategies for knowledge-transforming
  11. Part II: Learner-User Research
    1. 4 Research Population Representativeness and Research Methods
      1. 4.1 International students as L2 users in advanced academic settings
        1. 4.1.1 Implications for teaching
      2. 4.2 Research-based writing intervention
      3. 4.3 Overview of procedures
        1. 4.3.1 Instructions to students participating in the research
      4. 4.4 Research questions
      5. 4.5 Mixed methods research design
        1. 4.5.1 Worldview
        2. 4.5.2 How the design operates
      6. 4.6 Validity
    2. 5 Performance Enhancing Measures
      1. 5.1 How self-report was used to collect data from student participants
      2. 5.2 Instrumentation validity and reliability
        1. 5.2.1 Description of the Strategic Competence Questionnaire (SCQ)
        2. 5.2.2 Description of the Interview Protocol (IP)
        3. 5.2.3 Description of the task-based Student’s Quality Assessment Tool (SQAT)
        4. 5.2.4 Description of the task-based Teacher’s Quality Assessment Tool (TQAT)
        5. 5.2.5 Data collection summary
      3. 5.3 Data collection procedures
      4. 5.4 Data analysis procedures for mixed methods, concurrent triangulation, multi-stage design
      5. 5.5 How the methodology relates to theory and development
      6. 5.6 Summary of the methodology
    3. 6 Variables Influencing Strategic Competence
      1. 6.1 Introduction to chapter 6, quantitative research results
      2. 6.2 Learners’ use of strategies and skills
        1. 6.2.1 Across all learners, stage 1 pre-writing
        2. 6.2.2 Across all learners, stage 2 drafting
        3. 6.2.3 Across all learners, stage 3 revising
        4. 6.2.4 Across stages, individual learners
        5. 6.2.5 Summary of results for research question 1
      3. 6.3 Learners’ most helpful strategies
        1. 6.3.1 Overall results for stage 1, pre-writing
        2. 6.3.2 Overall results for stage 2, drafting
        3. 6.3.3 Overall results for stage 3, revising
        4. 6.3.4 Overall results for all 3 stages combined (pre-writing, drafting, and revising)
        5. 6.3.5 Composite profile of learners’ most helpful strategies
        6. 6.3.6 Summary of quantitative results for research question 2
      4. 6.4 Learners’ and teacher’s quality ratings
        1. 6.4.1 Overall results across all 3 stages (pre-writing, drafting, and revising)
        2. 6.4.2 Individual Quantitative Results Across All 3 Stages for Case 1- Gee
        3. 6.4.3 Individual Quantitative Results Across All 3 Stages for Case 2 - Tory
        4. 6.4.4 Individual Quantitative Results Across All 3 Stages for Case 3 - Ferra
        5. 6.4.5 Individual Quantitative Results Across All 3 Stages for Case 4 - Liv
        6. 6.4.6 Individual Quantitative Results Across All 3 Stages for Case 5 - Anyo
        7. 6.4.7 Individual Quantitative Results Across All 3 Stages for Case 6 - Sam
        8. 6.4.8 Summary of Results for Research Question 3
  12. Part III: Learner-User Perspectives
    1. 7 Profiles
      1. 7.1 Introduction to chapter 7, qualitative research results
      2. 7.2 Results case 1– Gee
      3. 7.3 Results case 2 - Tory
      4. 7.4 Results case 3 - Ferra
      5. 7.5 Results case 4 - Liv
      6. 7.6 Results case 5 - Anyo
      7. 7.7 Results case 6 - Sam
      8. 7.8 Summary of the qualitative findings
        1. 7.8.1 Acculturated student participants
        2. 7.8.2 Non-acculturated student participants
        3. 7.8.3 Summary across the six cases
    2. 8 Developing Learner-User Agency
      1. 8.1 Interrelations for strategic competence (proficiency)
        1. 8.2 Overview of the study and findings
      2. 8.3 Synthesis of data analyses
        1. 8.3.1 What research question 1 showed
        2. 8.3.2 What research question 2 showed
        3. 8.3.3 What research question 3 showed
        4. 8.3.4 What all three showed together to answer research question 4
      3. 8.4 Strategic competence as catalyst for development
      4. 8.5 Learner assessment and writing instruction
      5. 8.6 Theory and professional practice
      6. 8.7 Implications
  13. Part IV: Learner-User Centered Pedagogy
    1. 9 Connecting Learning with Teaching
      1. 9.1 How prior knowledge and learning interact
      2. 9.2 The strategic learner and the student-centered classroom
        1. 9.2.1 Advice for teachers
        2. 9.2.2 Advice for students
      3. 9.3 Process pedagogy and evaluation
        1. 9.3.1 Knowledge transforming literacy strategies
        2. 9.3.2 Knowledge transforming language skills
      4. 9.4 Tools for learning, teaching, and formative assessment
        1. 9.4.1 Syllabus with formative assessment tools
      5. 9.5 What every educator can do
        1. 9.5.1 Guide student learning with strategies
        2. 9.5.2 Connect learning outcomes and assessment
        3. 9.5.3 Shift pedagogical priorities and fund professional development
    2. 10 Coda Chapter: Transformation in a Nutshell
      1. 10.1 In the author’s own words
  14. References
  15. Key Definitions
  16. Appendix A: Academic English Writing Questionnaire ©
  17. Appendix B: Beliefs about Academic Writing and Instruction Questionnaire
  18. Appendix C: Research Writing/Grading Schedule
  19. Appendix D: Strategic Competence Questionnaire (SCQ): 4 stages
    1. STRATEGIC COMPETENCE FOR PROFESSIONAL PROFICIENCY IN SCHOLARLY SECOND LANGUAGE (L2) LEGAL WRITING STAGE1
    2. STRATEGIC COMPETENCE FOR PROFESSIONAL PROFICIENCY IN SCHOLARLY SECOND LANGUAGE (L2) LEGAL WRITING STAGE 2
    3. STRATEGIC COMPETENCE FOR PROFESSIONAL PROFICIENCY IN SCHOLARLY SECOND LANGUAGE (L2) LEGAL WRITING STAGE 3.a
    4. STRATEGIC COMPETENCE FOR PROFESSIONAL PROFICIENCY IN SCHOLARLY SECOND LANGUAGE (L2) LEGAL WRITING STAGE 3.b
  20. Appendix E: Interview Protocol (IP)
  21. Appendix F: Quality Assessment Tools (SQAT/TQAT): 4 stages
    1. STUDENT’S QUALITY ASSESSMENT TOOL (SQAT) STAGE 1 - PRE-DRAFTING CHECKLIST FOR STUDENTS
    2. TEACHER’S QUALITY ASSESSMENT (TQAT) STAGE 1 - PRE-DRAFTING EXTERNAL CONTROL FOR TEACHER-RESEARCHER
    3. STUDENT’S QUALITY ASSESSMENT TOOL (SQAT) STAGE 2 - *OUTLINE → DRAFTING CHECKLIST FOR SEMINAR PAPERS AND LAW REVIEW ARTICLES
    4. TEACHER’S QUALITY ASSESSMENT TOOL (TQAT) STAGE 2 - *OUTLINE→DRAFTING EXTERNAL CONTROL MEASURE FOR SCHOLARLY LEGAL WRITING
    5. STUDENT’S QUALITY ASSESSMENT TOOL (SQAT) STAGE 3.a - FOR STUDENTS TO END REVISING PROCESS (based on Ramsfield, 2005)
    6. TEACHER’S QUALITY ASSESSMENT TOOL (TQAT) STAGE 3.a - TEACHER’S EXTERNAL CONTROL MEASURE OF REVISING PROCESS (based on Ramsfield, 2005)
    7. STUDENT’S QUALITY ASSESSMENT TOOL (SQAT) STAGE 3.b - STUDENT’S SELF-REPORT ON PROFICIENCY AND INSTRUCTION
    8. TEACHER’S QUALITY ASSESSMENT TOOL (TQAT) STAGE 3.b - TEACHER OBSERVATION ON PROFICIENCY AND INSTRUCTION
    9. STUDENT’S QUALITY ASSESSMENT TOOL (SQAT) STAGE 4 - CHECKLIST FOR WHAT MAKES A PAPER PUBLISHABLE
    10. TEACHER’S QUALITY ASSESSMENT TOOL (TQAT) STAGE 4 - CHECKLIST FOR WHAT MAKES A PAPER PUBLISHABLE
  22. Appendix G: The Process of Scholarly Writing ©
  23. Appendix H: Strategies Checklist: Self-Editing for Clarity © - SELF-EDITING STRATEGIES CHECKLIST
  24. Appendix I: Strategies for Academic English Writers: 3 stages
    1. STRATEGIES FOR ACADEMIC ENGLISH WRITERS STAGE 1 Pre-Drafting
    2. STRATEGIES FOR ACADEMIC ENGLISH WRITERS STAGE 2 Drafting
    3. STRATEGIES FOR ACADEMIC ENGLISH WRITERS STAGE 3 Revising
  25. Appendix J: Checklists of Goals for Academic English Writers: 3 Stages
    1. PRE-DRAFTING CHECKLIST (STAGE 1) GOALS FOR ACADEMIC ENGLISH WRITERS
    2. DRAFTING CHECKLIST (STAGE 2) GOALS FORACADEMIC ENGLISH WRITERS
    3. REVISING & EDITING CHECKLIST (STAGE 3) GOALS FOR ACADEMIC ENGLISH WRITERS
  26. Appendix K: Syllabus with Formative Assessment
    1. Academic English Writing Syllabus
      1. Course Description and Overview
      2. Course Objectives
      3. Student Learning Outcomes
      4. Pedagogical Approach
      5. Course Structure
      6. Class Schedule
      7. Course Requirements
      8. Evaluation
      9. Grading and Formative Assessment
      10. Academic Integrity
  27. Index