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Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Volume 7

Book Description

As device sizes in the semiconductor industries are shrinking, they become more vulnerable to smaller contaminant particles, and most conventional cleaning techniques employed in the industry are not as effective at smaller scales. The book series Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning as a whole provides an excellent source of information on these alternative cleaning techniques as well as methods for characterization and validation of surface contamination. Each volume has a particular topical focus, covering the key techniques and recent developments in the area. The chapters in this Volume address the sources of surface contaminants and various methods for their collection and characterization, as well as methods for cleanliness validation. Regulatory aspects of cleaning are also covered. The collection of topics in this book is unique and complements other volumes in this series. Edited by the leading experts in small-scale particle surface contamination, cleaning and cleaning control, these books will be an invaluable reference for researchers and engineers in R&D, manufacturing, quality control and procurement specification situated in a multitude of industries such as: aerospace, automotive, biomedical, defense, energy, manufacturing, microelectronics, optics and xerography. 

  • Provides a state-of-the-art survey and best-practice guidance for scientists and engineers engaged in surface cleaning or handling the consequences of surface contamination
  • Addresses the continuing trends of shrinking device size and contamination vulnerability in a range of industries, spearheaded by the semiconductor industry and others
  • Includes new regulatory aspects

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Contributors
  6. Preface
  7. About the Editors
  8. Chapter 1: Sources and Generation of Surface Contaminants and Their Impact
    1. Abstract
    2. Acknowledgments
    3. 1 Introduction
    4. 2 Surface Cleanliness Levels
    5. 3 Sources and Generation of Contaminants
    6. 4 Impact of Contaminants
    7. 5 Summary and Conclusions
    8. Disclaimer
  9. Chapter 2: Mid-IR Spectroscopy as a Tool for Cleanliness Validation
    1. Abstract
    2. 1 Background
    3. 2 Principles of Grazing-Angle FTIR
    4. 3 Description of the Method
    5. 4 Advantages and Disadvantages
    6. 5 Results and Applications
    7. 6 Future Developments
    8. 7 Summary
  10. Chapter 3: Optically Stimulated Electron Emission: A Powerful Tool for Surface Cleanliness Monitoring
    1. Abstract
    2. 1 Introduction
    3. 2 OSEE Principle
    4. 3 Photoemitting Materials
    5. 4 Applications of OSEE
    6. 5 Summary
  11. Chapter 4: Methods for Verifying Medical Device Cleanliness
    1. Abstract
    2. 1 Background
    3. 2 Cleaning Issues and Concerns with Medical Devices
    4. 3 Extraction Techniques
    5. 4 Cleaning of Metal and Ceramic Components
    6. 5 Device Compatibility—Types of Tests and Description
    7. 6 Test Methods to Identify Contaminants in Extracts
    8. 7 Setting Limits and Biological Safety Assessment
    9. 8 Validation
    10. 9 Sources of Contamination
    11. 10 Cleanliness Standards, Nonviable Contamination
    12. 11 Future Developments
    13. 12 Conclusion
  12. Chapter 5: Cleaning Validation and Its Regulatory Aspects in the Pharmaceutical Industry
    1. Abstract
    2. 1 Introduction
    3. 2 Good Manufacturing Practice in API Manufacturing
    4. 3 Establishing the Acceptance Limits
    5. 4 Cleaning of Equipment
    6. 5 Sampling Methods for Cleaning Validation
    7. 6 Cleaning Method Specificity
    8. 7 Solvents Used for Cleaning
    9. 8 Cleaning Agents
    10. 9 Analytical Methods
    11. 10 Cleaning Development Phase
    12. 11 Cleaning Validation Protocol
    13. 12 Validation Report
    14. 13 The FDA Cleaning Validation Guideline
    15. 14 Effective Cleaning Validation Maintenance Program
    16. 15 Summary
  13. Index