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Diet and Disease by Katie Ferraro

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CHAPTER 3

Metabolic Stress and Critical Illness, Cancer, and HIV/AIDS

Chapter Abstract

When the body undergoes stress and endures disease or injury, changes to the chemical environment impact nutritional status. Metabolic stress alters the metabolic rate, heart rate, blood pressure, hormonal status, and the body’s ability to metabolize nutrients. Nutrient needs at this stage are often so high that the metabolically stressed, critically ill patient is unable to meet needs through oral intake alone and nutrition support becomes an integral part of the treatment plan.

In respiratory distress, problems arise that disrupt the process of exchange of gases between the air and blood. Respiratory distress results in a lowered oxygen supply in the blood ...

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