Modulation by digital signals

Once the source coding operations (MPEG audio and video coding, data insertion, multiplexing and eventually scrambling) and the channel coding (energy dispersal, outer RS coding, interleaving, inner convolutional coding) have been carried out, we have a data stream ready to be used for modulation of a carrier for transmission to the end users.

Depending on the medium (satellite, cable, terrestrial network), the bandwidth available for transmission depends on technical and administrative considerations, the latter largely depending on the former. In fact, technical conditions – particularly signal-to-noise ratio and echoes – vary considerably between signals coming from a satellite (weak but rather stable ...

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