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Diplomacy in Japan-EU Relations by Oliviero Frattolillo

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Conclusion

Within the diplomatic history of Japanese–European relations – as regards the period analysed in this work – three areas, or three elements, may be identified that have substantially affected its own path: the structure of the international system; pragmatic nationalism; and identity discourse. Depending on the historical–political moments and on single cases, this triadic dimension exerted an influence by leveraging its various aspects, alternately or together.

During the Cold War years, the bipolar system that resulted in the Japanese- European response (the ‘dependent variable’) was definitely the systemic variable (the ‘independent variable’). In the pure realist anarchy, especially related to the first bipolar phase, the transpacific ...

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