The mathematical operators used in this book are similar to those used in the C programming language. However, integer division with truncation and rounding are specifically defined. The bitwise operators are defined assuming two’s-complement representation of integers. Numbering and counting loops generally begin from 0.

+ | Addition |

- | Subtraction (as a binary operator) or negation (as a unary operator) |

++ | Increment |

-- | Decrement |

* | Multiplication |

^ | Power |

/ | Integer division with truncation of the result toward 0. For example, 7/4 and -7/-4 are truncated to 1 and -7/4 and 7/-4 are truncated to -1. |

// | Integer division with rounding to the nearest integer. Half-integer ... |

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