5Implementing Initial Response Measures: Hazard Detection, Warning, Evacuation and Sheltering

What You’ll Learn in This Chapter

  • Methods to recognize hazards before disasters occur.
  • The importance of warning systems.
  • Different evacuation methods.
  • Categories of sheltering and housing.
  • Typical behavior during evacuation and sheltering.

After Studying This Chapter, You’ll Be Able To

  • Detect hazards and activate the emergency operations plan.
  • Assess the best way(s) to issue warnings.
  • Compare and contrast alternative means of issuing warnings.
  • Understand evacuation and sheltering behavior.
  • Evaluate evacuation and shelter options.

Goals and Outcomes

  • Identify hazards and share awareness with others.
  • Develop and disseminate effective warning messages.
  • Activate the community’s emergency operations center.
  • Select appropriate protective actions during response.
  • Predict typical human behaviors during evacuation.
  • Establish and maintain an effectively run shelter.


When a disaster occurs or is about to take place, you, as an emergency manager, will have numerous urgent, significant and perhaps overwhelming responsibilities. The first step in response is to detect a hazard, and this may be accomplished through a variety of means. During or after this identification process, you may need to implement the emergency operations plan and activate ...

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