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Discovering SQL: A Hands-On Guide for Beginners by Alex Kriegel

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SUMMARY

New developments such as cloud computing, XML, OLAP, NoSQL, and OO technologies continue to change the ways we are collecting, storing, and consuming information; the very nature of the information keeps changing and often involves new media and new formats. The very fundamentals such as rows and columns might go the way of the dodo, being replaced with new paradigms.

Cloud computing represents the next step in distributed storage and computing. The main characteristics of it are self-service on demand, resource pooling, capacity on demand, and a pay-as-you go approach. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) encompassed paradigms of Software as a Service (SaaS) and Platform as a Service (PaaS); storage and computing capacity on demand were made possible by advances in virtualization technology and ubiquitous connectivity. A variety of different frameworks, ranging from proprietary to open source made cloud computing a reality. Cloud computing allows RDBMSs to be installed, configured, and administered on virtual environments, created and destroyed on demand. Combined with plummeting storage prices and ubiquitous connectivity, it also enabled the NoSQL phenomenon, a reincarnation of the key/value data organization that hearkens back to the prerelational era.

XML emerged as the de facto information exchange standard. Not surprisingly, relational databases responded by incorporating XML into their cores. The approaches taken by each of the RDBMS vendors might be different (XML ...

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