The Sigma Notation: The symbol Σ, known as sigma, is used to denote the summation of a sequence of numbers. If a1, a2, … is a sequence of numbers then, for example, the summation a4 + a5 + ⋯ + a11 is denoted by
As further examples, we have
Binomial Theorem: We have learnt the binomial theorem in Chapter 4, which states that for real numbers x, y and a positive integer n
The following formulae that are taught in high schools are also familiar to us:
Finite Geometric ...