**The Sigma Notation:** The symbol Σ, known as sigma, is used to denote the summation of a sequence of numbers. If *a*_{1}, *a*_{2}, … is a sequence of numbers then, for example, the summation *a*_{4} + *a*_{5} + ⋯ + *a*_{11} is denoted by

As further examples, we have

**Binomial Theorem:** We have learnt the binomial theorem in Chapter 4, which states that for real numbers *x*, *y* and a positive integer *n*

The following formulae that are taught in high schools are also familiar to us:

**Finite Geometric ...**

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