Twentieth-century precedents and realized urban ideas

In 1889, in his book City Planning According to Artistic Principles, Camillo Sitte (1843–1903), an Austrian architect and artist, described the city as a series of “rooms,” with urban squares considered as spaces for inhabiting. He was interested in enhancing the experience of the citizens through urban design, approaching the city as a work of art, rather than a technical exercise of geometry and form.

At the start of the twentieth century there were many groups of theorists and artists across the world who were challenging conventions of society, art, and thinking. In the early 1900s the French architect and urbanist Eugène Hénard was concerned with aspects of circulation in the city. He ...

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