It is not down in any map; true places never are.

Herman Melville, Moby-Dick, 1851

A painting does not normally indicate a plan of action, neither does a sculpture, nor a perspective drawing, but a map always predicates an action. If historical, it records an action, and it allows viewers to locate themselves in relation to a place or point. All maps are forms of abstractions; they make a connection between the imagined and the experienced. A map is a visual representation, but it describes something which cannot be seen; it is an abstraction of reality.

When we consider our cities and their evolution and development, we always look to the map as a reference. The horizontal surface of the map records the relationships between spaces, ...

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