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DWDM Network Designs and Engineering Solutions

Book Description

A comprehensive book on DWDM network design and implementation solutions

Design Software Included

  • Study various optical communication principles as well as communication methodologies in an optical fiber

  • Design and evaluate optical components in a DWDM network

  • Learn about the effects of noise in signal propagation, especially from OSNR and BER perspectives

  • Design optical amplifier-based links

  • Learn how to design optical links based on power budget

  • Design optical links based on OSNR

  • Design a real DWDM network with impairment due to OSNR, dispersion, and gain tilt

  • Classify and design DWDM networks based on size and performance

  • Understand and design nodal architectures for different classification of DWDM networks

  • Comprehend different protocols for transport of data over the DWDM layer

  • Learn how to test and measure different parameters in DWDM networks and optical systems

  • The demand for Internet bandwidth grows as new applications, new technologies, and increased reliance on the Internet continue to rise. Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) is one technology that allows networks to gain significant amounts of bandwidth to handle this growing need. DWDM Network Designs and Engineering Solutions shows you how to take advantage of the new technology to satisfy your network's bandwidth needs. It begins by providing an understanding of DWDM technology and then goes on to teach the design, implementation, and maintenance of DWDM in a network. You will gain an understanding of how to analyze designs prior to installation to measure the impact that the technology will have on your bandwidth and network efficiency. This book bridges the gap between physical layer and network layer technologies and helps create solutions that build higher capacity and more resilient networks.

    Companion CD-ROM
    The companion CD-ROM contains a complimentary 30-day demo from VPIphotonics™ for VPItransmissionMaker™, the leading design and simulation tool for photonic components, subsystems, and DWDM transmission systems. VPItransmissionMaker contains 200 standard demos, including demos from Chapter 10, that show how to simulate and characterize devices, amplifiers, and systems.

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
      1. Dedications
    2. About the Authors
      1. About the Technical Reviewers
    3. Acknowledgments
    4. Introduction
      1. Goals and Methods
      2. Who Should Read This Book?
      3. How This Book Is Organized
    5. 1. Introduction to Optical Networking
      1. WDM
      2. Optics: An Update
        1. Reflection, Refraction, Total Internal Reflection, and Snell's Law
        2. Birefringence
        3. Polarization
        4. Dispersion
        5. Diffraction
      3. Fiber
        1. Cutoff Condition and Single Mode Fiber
      4. Fiber Losses
        1. Attenuation
        2. Raleigh Scattering
        3. Bending Losses
        4. Attenuation Coefficient
      5. Dispersion in Fiber
        1. Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)
        2. Material Dispersion
        3. Waveguide Dispersion
      6. Nonlinearities
        1. Four-Wave Mixing and Difference-Frequency Generation
      7. Window of Operations
      8. Fiber Types
        1. Nondispersion-Shifted Fiber (ITU-T G.652 Recommendation)9
        2. Dispersion-Shifted Fiber (ITU-T G.653)10
        3. ITU G.654 (Loss Minimized at 1550 nm)11
        4. Nonzero Dispersion-Shifted Fiber (G.655)12
      9. Units of Optical Power Measurement: Decibel
      10. A Point-to-Point WDM Network
      11. Emerging Technologies: WDM Versus TDM, OCDM, and SCM
      12. Summary
      13. References
    6. 2. Networking with DWDM -1
      1. Optical Transmitters: Lasers
        1. Distributed Feedback Lasers
        2. Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) Lasers
        3. Tunable Lasers
        4. VCSEL Laser
        5. Line Width of a Laser
        6. Chirp
      2. Modulation: Direct and External
        1. Modulation Formats in the Optical Domain
      3. Optical Receivers: Photodetecters
        1. The PIN Photo Detector
        2. Avalanche Photodiodes
        3. Receiver Noise
          1. Shot Noise
          2. Thermal Noise
        4. Receiver Performance
          1. BER: Bit-Error Rate
            1. Mean
            2. Variance
            3. Error Function and Its Relationship to BER
        5. Receiver Sensitivity
        6. SNR
      4. Couplers and Circulators
      5. Cavities and Filter
        1. Fabry Perot Cavity Filters
        2. Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG)
        3. Acousto-Optical Tunable Filter
        4. AWG Arrayed Waveguides
        5. Mach Zehneder Interferometer and Filter
        6. Thin Film Filters
      6. Complex Components: Transponders
      7. Switches
        1. Mechanical Switches
        2. Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Technology
        3. Electro-Optical and Thermo-Optical Switches
        4. Bubble Technology
      8. Analysis of the Node
      9. Summary
      10. References
    7. 3. Networking with DWDM -2
      1. A Typical Optical Amplifier
        1. Amplifier Heuristics
        2. Amplifier Noise
      2. Doped Fiber Amplifiers
        1. EDFA—Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier
        2. EDFA Working (Operation of EDFA)
        3. EDFA Noise
      3. Raman Amplifier
        1. Raman Spectra
        2. Distributed Amplification
        3. Hybrid Amplification
        4. Advantages of Raman Amplifiers and Comparison to EDFAs
      4. SOA—Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers
        1. Wavelength Conversion Using SOAs
      5. Dispersion Compensation Techniques: Pre- and Postcompensation
        1. Postcompensation
        2. Precompensation
      6. Dispersion Compensation Using Fibers
        1. GVD Compensation by Using Fiber Bragg Gratings
      7. Polarization Mode Dispersion and Compensation Techniques
        1. PMD Compensation Techniques8
      8. Summary
      9. References
    8. 4. WDM Network Design -1
      1. Introduction to Optical Design
      2. Factors That Affect System Design
        1. Long-Haul Impairments: Nonlinearity
      3. Effect of Chromatic Dispersion on Transmission Length and Induced Power Penalty
      4. Design of a Point-to-Point Link Based on Q-Factor and OSNR
      5. Calculation of Q-Factor from OSNR
        1. Calculation of OSNR for a Point-to-Point Link
        2. OSNR Improvements by Raman Amplification
      6. Margin Requirements
      7. Design Using Chromatic Dispersion Compensation
      8. OSNR and Dispersion-Based Design
      9. Frequency Chirp
      10. Effects of FWM and XPM on Long-Haul Design
      11. PMD in Long-Haul Design
      12. Examples
        1. Case 1
          1. Method 1
          2. Method 2
        2. Case 2
          1. Answer
        3. Case 3
          1. Answer
        4. Case 4
          1. Answer
        5. Case 5
        6. Exercises
      13. Summary
      14. References
    9. 5. WDM Network Design -2
      1. WDM Pass-through Case—Virtual or Logical Topology Design
      2. Classification of Optical Networks Based on Geographical Sizes and Functionality
        1. Classification of Networks
      3. Metro Access Networks
      4. Metro Core Networks
        1. Salient Features of Metro Core Rings
      5. Long-Haul Networks
      6. Nodal Architectures and the Optical Service Channel
      7. Nodal Architectures for Different Network Markets
        1. Long-Haul Nodal Architectures
        2. Metro Network Nodal Architectures
        3. Protection in WDM Networks and Protection Switching
        4. Protection for Different Qualities of Lightpaths
        5. Mesh Protection
        6. Signaling and Protection in WDM Networks
      8. Optical System Design
      9. Access Network Design
        1. Access Node Architecture
      10. Metropolitan Area Network (Metro Core) Design
      11. Long-Haul System Design
      12. Forward Error Correction
      13. WDM System Design: Components and Subsystem Consideration
        1. Modulating a Laser: Direct and External Modulation and Spectral Efficiency
        2. Optical Receiver Design
        3. Choosing Fiber and Design Based on Different Fiber Types
        4. Optical Amplifiers
        5. Optical Add/Drop MUX and Cross-Connects
      14. Questions
        1. Question 1
        2. Question 2
      15. Summary
      16. References
    10. 6. Network Level Strategies in WDM Network Design: Routing and Wavelength Assignment
      1. Routing and Wavelength Assignment: The Basic Problem
      2. Formulating the Wavelength Assignment Problem
      3. Routing and Wavelength Assignment and Integer Linear Programming Formulations
      4. The Graph Coloring Approach to the Wavelength Assignment Problem
      5. Static and Dynamic Lightpath Establishment
      6. Virtual Topology Design
      7. Some Corollaries on Routing and Wavelength Assignment
      8. Blocking Probability Computation in Optical Networks
      9. Summary
      10. References
    11. 7. X over DWDM
      1. Gigabit Ethernet/ 10Gigabit Ethernet (Optical Ethernet)
        1. Ethernet Frame
        2. Gigabit Ethernet (GE)
        3. Gigabit Physical Layer
        4. 10 Gigabit Ethernet
      2. Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (EPON)
        1. PON Topologies
        2. Ethernet Passive Optical Network
      3. SONET/SDH
        1. SONET/SDH Date Rate
        2. Basic SDH Building Block
        3. SONET/SDH Layers
        4. SONET/SDH Multiplexing Structure
        5. SONET and SDH Architectures
          1. Linear Add/Drop
          2. Ring Architectures
        6. Packet over SONET/SDH (POS)
      4. Dynamic Packet Transport (DPT) / Resilient Packet Ring (RPR)
        1. SRP Generic Frame Header
        2. Generic Data and Control Packet
        3. Topology Discovery and Ring Selection
        4. Packet Processing and Ring (Packet) Flow
        5. SRP Bandwidth Fairness (SRP-fa)
        6. SRP Architectures
      5. IP over DWDM
      6. Summary
      7. References
    12. 8. Future WDM Networks and Technologies
      1. Burst Switching
      2. Burst-Switched Network Algorithms
        1. Working of the JET Algorithm
      3. MPLS and Burst Switching
      4. Photonic Slot Routing
      5. Contention Resolution Using Delay Lines
        1. Optical Contention Resolution: Principles
      6. 40 Gbps Systems
        1. Return to Zero in 40 G Systems
      7. Resource Reservation Protocol and Traffic Engineering in the Optical Layer
      8. Optical Cross-Connect Technology
      9. HORNET: (Hybrid Opto-Electronic Ring Network)
      10. Burst-Mode Receivers
        1. Burst-Mode Receiver Operations
      11. Vision of an Optical Internet
      12. Self-Similarity in Internet Traffic and Its Effect on Optical Networks
        1. Long-Range Dependence
        2. Heavy-Tailed Distribution
      13. Transparent Optical Networks
      14. Summary
      15. References
    13. 9. Tests and Measurements
      1. Test and Measuring Devices
        1. Power Meters
        2. Attenuators (for Testing Applications)
        3. Laser Sources
          1. Tunable Lasers
        4. Broadband Light Source
        5. Optical Spectrum Analyzers
          1. Operation of a Spectrum Analyzer
        6. Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR)
          1. How OTDR Works
        7. Polarization and Its Measurements
          1. Jones Vector
          2. Stokes Vector
          3. Polarization Ellipse and Poincare' Sphere
          4. Poincare' Sphere
          5. PDL and PMD Measurement
      2. Characterization of a WDM Multiplexer/Demultiplexer and Optical Add/Drop Unit
        1. Passive Component Testing
      3. EDFA Testing
        1. Interpolated Source Subtraction (ISS)
        2. Time Domain Extinction
          1. Noise Gain Profile
      4. Optical Waveform Analysis
        1. Extinction Ratio
        2. Eye Mask Testing
        3. BER Measurement
      5. Complete WDM End-to-End Testing
        1. WDM Link Acceptance Testing
        2. WDM Provisioning Test
        3. WDM Stress Test
      6. Summary
      7. References
    14. 10. Simulations of WDM Systems
      1. Need for Simulation
      2. Inside the CD-ROM in This Book
      3. Standalone Versus Collaborative Design Tools
      4. VPItransmissionMaker Simulation Technology
        1. Typical Physical-Layer Design Processes Using VPItransmissionMaker
        2. Signal-to-Noise Simulation
        3. Optical Cross-Talk
        4. Millisecond Power Transient Analysis
        5. Polarization Mode Dispersion
        6. Maximizing Transmission Length
      5. Photonic Component Design
      6. Case Studies
        1. Back-to-Back Receiver Sensitivity
        2. 300 km OC-48 Metro Core Ring
        3. 300 km OC-192 Metro Core Ring
        4. Long-Haul WDM System
        5. Amplifier Spacing and Launch Power
      7. Summary
      8. References
    15. Bibliography
    16. System Requirements and Recommendations
      1. Hardware Requirements
      2. Software Requirements