9  Life Cycle Assessment and Ecosystem Services

Thomas Koellner, Stephan Pfister and Annette Koehler


Consumption in developed and emerging economies relies on global resource flows with respect to materials from mining, forestry, agriculture and fisheries/ aquaculture. In this context Chapters 6, 7 and 8 show impressively how global flows of abiotic and biotic resources can also be expressed as virtual flows of land, freshwater and, in principle, even marine environments around the globe. These virtual flows refer to the amount of land, freshwater, and seafloor used in the source countries and are embedded in traded commodities. This also implies that the import of resources means an export of ecological damages to biodiversity and ...

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